This book provides a primary resource in basic fixed-point theorems due to Banach, Brouwer, Schauder and Tarski and their applications. Key topics covered include Sharkovsky’s theorem on periodic points, Thron’s results on the convergence of certain real iterates, Shield’s common fixed theorem for a commuting family of analytic functions and Bergweiler’s existence theorem on fixed points of the composition of certain meromorphic functions with transcendental entire functions. Generalizations of Tarski’s theorem by Merrifield and Stein and Abian’s proof of the equivalence of Bourbaki–Zermelo fixed-point theorem and the Axiom of Choice are described in the setting of posets. A detailed treatment of Ward’s theory of partially ordered topological spaces culminates in Sherrer fixed-point theorem. It elaborates Manka’s proof of the fixed-point property of arcwise connected hereditarily unicoherent continua, based on the connection he observed between set theory and fixed-point theory via a certain partial order. Contraction principle is provided with two proofs: one due to Palais and the other due to Barranga. Applications of the contraction principle include the proofs of algebraic Weierstrass preparation theorem, a Cauchy–Kowalevsky theorem for partial differential equations and the central limit theorem. It also provides a proof of the converse of the contraction principle due to Jachymski, a proof of fixed point theorem for continuous generalized contractions, a proof of Browder–Gohde–Kirk fixed point theorem, a proof of Stalling's generalization of Brouwer's theorem, examine Caristi's fixed point theorem, and highlights Kakutani's theorems on common fixed points and their applications.
This text offers an overview of the basic theories and techniques of functional analysis and its applications. It contains topics such as the fixed point theory starting from Ky Fan's KKM covering and quasi-Schwartz operators. It also includes over 200 exercises to reinforce important concepts.;The author explores three fundamental results on Banac
This book offers a systematic presentation of up-to-date material scattered throughout the literature from the methodology point of view. It reviews the basic theories and methods, with many interesting problems in partial and ordinary differential equations, differential geometry and mathematical physics as applications, and provides the necessary preparation for almost all important aspects in contemporary studies. All methods are illustrated by carefully chosen examples from mechanics, physics, engineering and geometry.
The greatest mathematicians, such as Archimedes, Newton, and Gauss, always united theory and applications in equal measure. Felix Klein There exists the remarkable possibility that one can master a subject mathemati cally, without really understanding its essence. Albert Einstein Don't give us numbers: give us insight! A contemporary natural scientist to a mathematician Numerous questions in physics, chemistry, biology, and economics lead to nonlinear problems; for example, deformation of rods, plates, and shells; behavior of plastic materials; surface waves of fluids; flows around objects in fluids or gases; shock waves in gases; movement of viscous fluids; equilibrium forms of rotating fluids in astrophysics; determination of the shape of the earth through gravitational measu- ments; behavior of magnetic fields of astrophysical objects; melting processes; chemical reactions; heat radiation; processes in nuclear reactors; nonlinear oscillation in physics, chemistry, and biology; 2 Introduction existence and stability of periodic and quasiperiodic orbits in celestial mechanics; stability of physical, chemical, biological, ecological, and economic processes; diffusion processes in physics, chemistry, and biology; processes with entropy production, and self-organization of systems in physics, chemistry, and biology; study of the electrical potential variation in the heart through measure ments on the body surface to prevent heart attacks; determining material constants or material laws (e. g.