FRAM: The Functional Resonance Analysis Method

Modelling Complex Socio-technical Systems

Author: Erik Hollnagel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 844

Resilience engineering has consistently argued that safety is more than the absence of failures. Since the first book was published in 2006, several book chapters and papers have demonstrated the advantage in going behind 'human error' and beyond the failure concept, just as a number of serious accidents have accentuated the need for it. But there has not yet been a comprehensive method for doing so; the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) fulfils that need. Whereas commonly used methods explain events by interpreting them in terms of an already existing model, the FRAM is used to model the functions that are needed for everyday performance to succeed. This model can then be used to explain specific events, by showing how functions can be coupled and how the variability of everyday performance sometimes may lead to unexpected and out-of-scale outcomes - either good or bad. The FRAM is based on four principles: equivalence of failures and successes, approximate adjustments, emergence, and functional resonance. As the FRAM is a method rather than a model, it makes no assumptions about how the system under investigation is structured or organised, nor about possible causes and cause-effect relations. Instead of looking for failures and malfunctions, the FRAM explains outcomes in terms of how functions become coupled and how everyday performance variability may resonate. This book presents a detailed and tested method that can be used to model how complex and dynamic socio-technical systems work, to understand why things sometimes go wrong but also why they normally succeed.

FRAM

The Functional Resonance Analysis Method

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 155

View: 633

Since the first book was published in 2006, resilience engineering has consistently argued that safety is more than the absence of failures. Several book chapters and papers have illustrated the advantage in going behind 'human error' and beyond the failure concept, and various complicated accidents have accentuated the need for it. But there has not yet been a comprehensive method for doing so; the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) fulfils that need. Whereas commonly used methods explain events by interpreting them in terms of an already existing model, the FRAM is used to produce a model of what is needed for everyday performance to go right. This can then be applied to explain specific events, by showing how functions can be coupled and how the variability of everyday performance sometimes may produce unexpected and out-of-scale outcomes - either good or bad. The FRAM is based on four principles: equivalence of failures and successes, approximate adjustments, emergence, and functional resonance. Since the FRAM is a method rather than a model, it makes no assumptions about how the system under investigation is structured or organised, nor about possible causes and cause-effect relations. Instead of looking for specific failures and malfunctions, the FRAM explains outcomes in terms of functional coupling and resonance. This book presents a detailed and tested method that can be used to model how complex and dynamic socio-technical systems work, and understand both why things sometimes go wrong but also why they normally succeed. About the Author Erik Hollnagel (Ph. D., psychology) is Professor at the University of Southern Denmark, Industrial Safety Chair at MINES Paris-Tech (France), and Professor Emeritus at University of Linköping (Sweden). Since 1971 he has worked within universities, research centres and industries in several countries with problems from domains such as nuclear power generation, aerospace and aviation, air traffic management, software engineering, healthcare, and land-based traffic. His professional interests include industrial safety, resilience engineering, accident investigation, cognitive systems engineering and cognitive ergonomics. He has published more than 250 papers and authored or edited 18 books, some of the most recent titles being The ETTO Principle (Ashgate, 2009) and Resilience Engineering in Practice (Ashgate, 2011). Erik Hollnagel is also Editor-in-Chief of the book series Ashgate Studies in Resilience Engineering.

Evaluating Effectiveness of the Application of the New Perspective in Safety, Safety-II: by Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) in a Manufacturing Environment

Author: Hamidreza Shaki

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Business communication

Page: 110

View: 655

The risk matrix has been used by safety professionals for many years as a significant tool for hazard management, risk assessment and prioritization, and to aid in offering a proactive approach to prevent negative outcomes. However, relative risk matrix assessments do not provide enough required variety to understand the complete picture necessary in complex systems of work; it merely explains definite type of hazards and their counter measures in isolation. Moreover, application of a linear causal relationship to recognize hazards creates an extensive attention to negative outcomes and lower level of controls, limiting stakeholder involvement and cross disciplinary engagement. Question sets inspired by the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) have been applied to understand if an alternative approach offers a more effective means of risk assessment, and thus is of greater value to both the stakeholders and the organization. Only one research study has been performed to illustrate if the new methods proposed in recent years (Resilience Engineering, FRAM, etc.) are applicable in industries. Albery et al., (2016) developed a new methodology as part of his dissertation in order to study the application of the new methods in a manufacturing environment. In view of that, this research investigates whether Albery's findings are valid within other industries.

A Resilience Engineering Approach for the Evaluation of Performance Variability

Development and Application of the Functional Resonance Analysis Method for Air Traffic Management Safety Assessment

Author: Luigi Macchi

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 169

View: 752

This thesis demonstrates the need to develop systemic safety assessment methods to account for the effect of performance variability on air traffic management safety. Like most modern socio-technical systems, air traffic management is so complex that it is impossible for it to be completely described. As consequence, performance cannot be completely specified because it must vary to meet performance demands. Performance variability is an inevitable asset to ensure the functioning of an organisation and at the same time can be harmful for system safety when it combines in an unexpected manner. This argument clearly indicates the need for safety assessment methods that can deal with performance variability. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) has the ability to model performance variability. However parts of the FRAM can be improved to expand its capabilities to evaluate performance variability. This thesis addresses this weakness and develops a methodology for the evaluation of performance variability. The methodology has been applied on a safety assessment case study for the German air traffic management domain. The results have been compared with the official results of a traditional safety assessment. The comparison shows the added valued of the proposed methodology. In particular it illustrates the possibility to identify emergent risks and human contribution to system safety.

Industrial Engineering in the Internet-Of-Things World

Selected Papers from the Virtual Global Joint Conference on Industrial Engineering and Its Application Areas, GJCIE 2020, August 14-15 2020

Author: Fethi Calisir

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Electronic books

Page: 486

View: 891

This book gathers extended versions of the best papers presented at the Global Joint Conference on Industrial Engineering and Its Application Areas (GJCIE), organized virtually on August 14-15, 2020, by Istanbul Technical University. It covers a wide range of topics, including decision analysis, supply chain management, systems modelling and quality control. Further, special emphasis is placed on cutting-edge applications of industrial Internet-of-Things. Technological, economic and business challenges are discussed in detail, presenting effective strategies that can be used to modernize current structures, eliminating the barriers that are keeping industries from taking full advantage of IoT technologies. The book offers an important link between technological research and industry best practices, and covers various disciplinary areas such as manufacturing, healthcare and service engineering, among others.

Data-Centric Safety

Challenges, Approaches, and Incident Investigation

Author: Alastair Faulkner

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 540

View: 261

Data-Centric Safety presents core concepts and principles of system safety management, and then guides the reader through the application of these techniques and measures to Data-Centric Systems (DCS). The authors have compiled their decades of experience in industry and academia to provide guidance on the management of safety risk. Data Safety has become increasingly important as many solutions depend on data for their correct and safe operation and assurance. The book’s content covers the definition and use of data. It recognises that data is frequently used as the basis of operational decisions and that DCS are often used to reduce user oversight. This data is often invisible, hidden. DCS analysis is based on a Data Safety Model (DSM). The DSM provides the basis for a toolkit leading to improvement recommendations. It also discusses operation and oversight of DCS and the organisations that use them. The content covers incident management, providing an outline for incident response. Incident investigation is explored to address evidence collection and management. Current standards do not adequately address how to manage data (and the errors it may contain) and this leads to incidents, possibly loss of life. The DSM toolset is based on Interface Agreements to create soft boundaries to help engineers facilitate proportionate analysis, rationalisation and management of data safety. Data-Centric Safety is ideal for engineers who are working in the field of data safety management. This book will help developers and safety engineers to: Determine what data can be used in safety systems, and what it can be used for Verify that the data being used is appropriate and has the right characteristics, illustrated through a set of application areas Engineer their systems to ensure they are robust to data errors and failures

Operations Management

Emerging Trend in the Digital Era

Author: Antonella Petrillo

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 380

View: 464

Global competition has caused fundamental changes in the competitive environment of the manufacturing and service industries. Firms should develop strategic objectives that, upon achievement, result in a competitive advantage in the market place. The forces of globalization on one hand and rapidly growing marketing opportunities overseas, especially in emerging economies on the other, have led to the expansion of operations on a global scale. The book aims to cover the main topics characterizing operations management including both strategic issues and practical applications. A global environmental business including both manufacturing and services is analyzed. The book contains original research and application chapters from different perspectives. It is enriched through the analyses of case studies.

Human Factors and Ergonomics for the Gulf Cooperation Council

Processes, Technologies, and Practices

Author: Shatha N. Samman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

View: 253

Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) is introduced to students, academics, researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). A holistic approach is taken to emphasize the breadth and depth of HFE by providing both theory and applications in the field. Providing HFE perspectives from expert academics from multidisciplinary and culturally diverse backgrounds, it contains case studies written by industry professionals highlighting their work from Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Features The first HFE book for the GCC region with case studies showcasing the economics of ergonomics Presents easy to read chapters covering principles, methodologies, applications, future trends, and key terms Encompasses both the theory and application of HFE fields discussing processes, technologies, and practices Written for readers with no prior background of HFE