Forced Migration and Mortality

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 766

In recent years the number of complex humanitarian emergencies around the world has been steadily increasing. War and political, ethnic, racial, and religious strife continually force people to migrate against their will. These forced migrants create a stream of new challenges for relief workers and policy makers. A better understanding of the characteristics of refugee populations and of the population dynamics of these situations is vital. Improved research and insights can enhance disaster management, refugee camp administration, and repatriation or resettlement programs. Forced Migration and Mortality examines mortality patterns in complex human- itarian emergencies, reviewing the state of knowledge, as well as how patterns may change in the new century. It contains four case studies of mortality in recent emergencies: Rwanda, North Korea, Kosovo, and Cambodia. Because refugees and internally displaced persons are likely to continue to be a significant humanitarian concern for many years, research in this field is critical. This is the first book to comprehensively explore forced migration and mortality and it provides useful material for researchers, policy makers, and relief workers.

Demography of Refugee and Forced Migration

Author: Graeme Hugo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 317

View: 387

This authoritative and comprehensive edited volume presents current research on how demography can contribute to generating scientific knowledge and evidence concerning refugees and forced migration, developing evidence based policy recommendations on protection for forced migrants and reception of refugees, and revealing the determinants and consequences of migration for origin and destination regions and communities. Refugee and other forced migrations have increased substantially in scale, complexity and diversity in recent decades. These changes challenge traditional approaches in response to refugee and other forced migration situations, and protection of refugees. Demography has an important contribution to make in this analytic space. While other disciplines (especially anthropology, law, geography, political science and international relations) have made major contributions to refugee and forced migration studies, demography has been less present with most research focusing on issues of refugee mortality and morbidity. This book specifies the range of topics for which a demographic approach is highly appropriate, and identifies findings of demographic research which can contribute to ever more effective policy making in this important arena of human welfare and international policy.

Demographic Assessment Techniques in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

Summary of a Workshop

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 34

View: 286

The Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration was established by the Committee on Population of the National Research Council in 1999. The roundtable is composed of experts from academia, government, philanthropy, and international organizations. The roundtable's purpose is to serve as an interdisciplinary, nonpartisan focal point for taking stock of what is known about demographic patterns in refugee situations, to apply this knowledge base to assist both policy makers and relief workers, and to stimulate new directions for innovation and scientific inquiry in this growing field of study. The roundtable meets yearly and has also organized a series of workshops (held concurrently with roundtable meetings) on some of the specific aspects of the demography of refugee and refugee-like situations, including mortality patterns, demographic assessment techniques, and research ethics in complex humanitarian emergencies. This report to the Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration is a summary of one such workshop, which was held on September 20-21, 2000, under the aupices of the Committee on Population. The purpose of this meeting was to address a basic problem faced by all humanitarian relief agencies in an emergency: how to count the numbers of displaced persons and assess their general well-being. Workshop participants examined different methods for estimating refugee populations and their mortality rates, whether mortality was due to disease and malnutrition or human rights abuses. Demographic Assessment Techniques in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Summary of a Workshop explores the applicability of various methods in different types of emergency settings, how to improve existing methodologies and develop new ones, and the difficulties encountered by personnel in the field, including security, logistics, and access to a population.

Child Health in Complex Emergencies

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 84

View: 283

Addressing the health needs of children in complex emergencies is critical to the success of relief efforts and requires coordinated and effective interventions. However, little systematic work has been undertaken to evaluate such care. To address this need, this monograph presents a review of the published literature in this area, providing background on the burden of disease, the major causes of morbidity and mortality, and the evidence base for effective interventions. It also describes surveys of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international agencies providing care to children in complex emergencies, which were conducted to identify guidelines commonly used to provide such care and assesses the content and limitations of these guidelines. A more in-depth survey of several organizations was also conducted to assess obstacles to this kind of care. On the basis of the survey findings and the review of the published literature, the working group recommended that evidence-based, locally adapted guidelines to address the curative and preventive care of children in complex emergencies and health systems planning should be adopted by ministries of health and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. The guidelines should target, as much as possible, the different levels of health care workers providing care to children to ensure appropriate, effective, and uniform care in a variety of situations. Child Health in Complex Emergencies presents specific examples of areas for further research and guideline development. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive and definitive assessment of child health in complex emergencies. The topic is much too vast and complex, and different individuals and institutions will have incompatible perspectives. Rather, we aim to provide a starting point for discussion and debate on how to improve the care of children in these settings.

Fertility of Malian Tamasheq Repatriated Refugees

The Impact of Forced Migration

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 62

View: 597

In Africa many of the refugee flows in recent years have had a strong ethnic dimension; interethnic conflict or conflict between politically powerful groups with minority populations is often an important aspect of who is forced to flee. In most cases the origins of conflict occur in a multiethnic environment, and repatriation (if it happens) occurs in that multiethnic context, with implications for subsequent relationships between the groups in terms of political, economic, and numeric power. As the primary source of recruitment to a population, fertility is an essential component of postconflict restructuring. The disruption of fertility during the disorder of forced migration can itself be seen as part of the disintegration of society and identity; the impact of conflict and flight on reproduction may be an important indicator of the degree of crisis faced by the population. Postcrisis fertility and changes from the reproductive regime prior to the forced migration indicate not only how the population has responded to the multiplicity of changes and traumas, but also its ability to adapt and manipulate its new sociopolitical position. This report focuses on the specific experience of a single persecuted population whose sociopolitical history, along with their underlying marital and fertility regimes, will inevitably condition responses to conflict.

Demography of Refugee and Forced Migration

Author: Graeme Hugo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 317

View: 909

This authoritative and comprehensive edited volume presents current research on how demography can contribute to generating scientific knowledge and evidence concerning refugees and forced migration, developing evidence based policy recommendations on protection for forced migrants and reception of refugees, and revealing the determinants and consequences of migration for origin and destination regions and communities. Refugee and other forced migrations have increased substantially in scale, complexity and diversity in recent decades. These changes challenge traditional approaches in response to refugee and other forced migration situations, and protection of refugees. Demography has an important contribution to make in this analytic space. While other disciplines (especially anthropology, law, geography, political science and international relations) have made major contributions to refugee and forced migration studies, demography has been less present with most research focusing on issues of refugee mortality and morbidity. This book specifies the range of topics for which a demographic approach is highly appropriate, and identifies findings of demographic research which can contribute to ever more effective policy making in this important arena of human welfare and international policy.

The Demography of Forced Migration

Summary of a Workshop

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 40

View: 721

Because forced migration situations are often physically dangerous and politically complicated, estimates of these populations are often difficult to make. Estimates of forced migration vary, but it is probable that there are about 23 million refugees and more than 30 million internally displaced people.In order to assist specific groups of forced migrants and also to better understand the general plight of forced migrants, good demographic data are needed. However, collecting data on forced migration presents tremendous challenges for normal data collection processes and standards.To explore a range of issues about internally displaced persons and refugees, the Committee on Population of the National Research Council organized a Workshop on the Demography of Forced Migration in Washington, D.C., in November 1997. The purpose of the workshop was to investigate the ways in which population and other social scientists can produce more useful demographic information about forced migrant populations and how they differ. This report summarizes the background papers prepared for the meeting, the presentations, and the general discussion.

Supporting Local Health Care in a Chronic Crisis

Management and Financing Approaches in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 104

View: 735

Providing medical support to the local population during a chronic crisis is difficult. The crisis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which is characterized by high excess mortality, ongoing armed violence, mass forced displacement, interference by neighboring countries, resource exploitation, asset stripping, and the virtual absence of the state, has led to great poverty and a dearth of funds for the support of the health system. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have stepped in to address the dire humanitarian situation. This study looks at four organizations that support local health care in the eastern DRC: the International Rescue Committee (IRC), Malteser, Medical Emergency Relief International (Merlin), and the Association Régionale d'Approvisionnement en Médicaments Essentiels (ASRAMES). The study makes a comparison of the management and financing approaches of these four organizations by collecting and comparing qualitative and quantitative data on their interaction with the (remaining) local health providers and the local population. Specific objectives of the study are: 1. To identify which management and financing approaches, including the setting of fees, are used by the four NGOs supporting healthcare in the eastern DRC. 2. To determine how these financing approaches affect utilization rates in the health zones supported by the four NGOs. 3. To assess how these utilization rates compare with donor and humanitarian standards. 4. To determine at what level fees must be set to allow for cost recovery or cost sharing in health facilities. 5. To identify the managerial problems confronting the four NGOs. Many epidemiological and public health studies focus on the interaction between health providers and target groups. Supporting Local Health Care in a Chronic Crisis: Management and Financing Approaches in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo concentrates more on how the relationship between the supporting NGOs and the local health system actually develops. In addition, a common aspect of many of the epidemiological and public health studies is the search for an optimal, or at least appropriate, management and financing approach.

Migration and Mortality

Social Death, Dispossession, and Survival in the Americas

Author: Jamie Longazel

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 315

View: 954

"This book uses theories of social death and the construction of lives as disposable across legal, public health, criminal, carceral, media, labor, and medical arenas to examine the fatal stakes of migration policy and practice for migrants crossing the U.S. southern border"--

The Demography of Armed Conflict

Author: Helge Brunborg

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 396

View: 530

War and conflict, whether internal or international, remains a pervasive phenomenon affecting most regions of the world and particularly low-income countries. Demographic consequences of war and violence, especially deaths and forced migration, are amongst the gravest costs of war and receive much attention in mass media, although it is often difficult to quantify such effects. Furthermore, demographic factors, such as population pressure on natural renewable resources, migration, differential population dynamics by ethnic or religious group, or the number of young persons in a population, have been suggested as potential causes of conflict. Despite the obvious importance of both demographic causes and consequences of armed conflict, research on the demographic aspects of conflict is scarce. This book brings together researchers from very different traditions to bridge gaps in the field, and to provide new insights into the demographic causes and consequences of armed conflict. The diversity of the authors, coming from demography, statistics, political science, sociology, anthropology, history, geography, economics and law, gives the reader a cross-cut of recent research in demography and armed conflict. The themes are equally diverse. Studies of demographic causes of conflict address issues of migration, ethnicity, population growth and youth bulges. Studies focusing on the consequences of conflict include some broad assessments of mortality from armed conflict, the estimation of casualties for prosecution of war crimes, as well as detailed case studies of conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Kenya, Mali, Rwanda, Sudan and Uganda.

Coerced and Free Migration

Global Perspectives

Author:

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 464

View: 183

This volume is an innovative history of major worldwide population movements, free and forced, from around 1500 to the early 20th century. It explores the shifting levels of freedom under which migrants traveled, and compares the experiences of migrants (and their descendants) who arrived under drastically different labor regimes.--Alison Games "Georgetown University"

The Health of Refugees

Public Health Perspectives from Crisis to Settlement

Author: Daniel Reidpath

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 749

At the moment, over 65 million people are forcibly displaced from their homes. The reasons for movement range from extreme weather conditions and environmental disasters, to war, civil and political crises, to the need for basic economic survival. Amongst these 65 million people are those that have been forced to leave a country that is no longer willing or able to offer protection and those who are displaced within their own country's borders. In order to improve conditions for displaced people all over the globe, we need to look at the reason behind their move as this defines their migration status under international law. In its turn, the migration status affects the requirements of other countries to grant asylum, and the individual's right to protection and support. The definition of migration status and its implications has created tension in the public debate on refugees for decades and is today more relevant than ever. In The Health of Refugees: Public Health Perspectives from Crisis to Settlement, the challenges and vulnerabilities created from this debate are addressed by public health policy makers, clinical practitioners, and researchers. An analysis of public health, international law, the history of migration, and the media's role in refugee health, it is a comprehensive and critical work with a strong message in favour of international and interdisciplinary cooperation. With a focus on what international obligations entail when it comes to refugees and migrants, the authors present a reinforced take on our collective responsibility to leave no one behind. The Health of Refugees: Public Health Perspectives from Crisis to Settlement traces the health repercussions on individuals and populations from the moment of forced mass movement due to conflict and other disasters, through to the process of resettlement in other countries. These issues are addressed within the context of other global public health priorities, and are part of the book's critical analysis not only of the particular vulnerabilities created by mobility, but also how these interact and intersect with existing considerations across gender and age in health systems and international law. With a wider geographical area and case studies from all over the globe as a basis for the studies presented, this is a fully updated edition with new material discussing the current political landscape. A truly multidisciplinary book, The Health of Refugees is ideal for public health practitioners, researchers, and postgraduate students. It is also an important work for those involved in non-governmental organisations, international aid, and international development. Furthermore, it provides a critical background for clinicians, mental health workers, and policymakers from health, welfare and migration.

Malaria Control During Mass Population Movements and Natural Disasters

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 180

View: 849

Admittedly, the world and the nature of forced migration have changed a great deal over the last two decades. The relevance of data accumulated during that time period can now be called into question. The roundtable and the Program on Forced Migration at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University have commissioned a series of epidemiological reviews on priority public health problems for forced migrants that will update the state of knowledge. Malaria Control During Mass Population Movements and Natural Disasters -- the first in the series, provides a basic overview of the state of knowledge of epidemiology of malaria and public health interventions and practices for controlling the disease in situations involving forced migration and conflict.

The Demography of Forced Migration

Summary of a Workshop

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 40

View: 677

Because forced migration situations are often physically dangerous and politically complicated, estimates of these populations are often difficult to make. Estimates of forced migration vary, but it is probable that there are about 23 million refugees and more than 30 million internally displaced people.In order to assist specific groups of forced migrants and also to better understand the general plight of forced migrants, good demographic data are needed. However, collecting data on forced migration presents tremendous challenges for normal data collection processes and standards.To explore a range of issues about internally displaced persons and refugees, the Committee on Population of the National Research Council organized a Workshop on the Demography of Forced Migration in Washington, D.C., in November 1997. The purpose of the workshop was to investigate the ways in which population and other social scientists can produce more useful demographic information about forced migrant populations and how they differ. This report summarizes the background papers prepared for the meeting, the presentations, and the general discussion.

War, Humanitarian Crises, Population Displacement, and Fertility

A Review of Evidence

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 46

View: 499

Fertility and reproductive health issues more broadly have tended to be of low priority in humanitarian crises. Public attention is drawn by information concerning the magnitude of refugee flows, of death tolls, and of numbers of injuries. Reproductive health has been regarded as a longer term issue that could safely be put on the back burner during the crisis phase of an emergency, when issues of providing adequate food, clean water, and shelter, plus treating acute infectious diseases of crowding, take priority. This report reviews what evidence there is concerning the effects of humanitarian crisis on fertility, with a view to identifying common patterns that may exist across settings and be of value in guiding responses to future crises.

The Prophets Speak on Forced Migration

Author: Mark J. Boda

Publisher: SBL Press

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page: 226

View: 191

A valuable resource with productive avenues for inquiry In this collection of essays dealing with the prophetic material in the Hebrew Bible, scholars explore the motifs, effects, and role of forced migration on prophetic literature. Contributors focus on the study of geographical displacement, social identity ethics, trauma studies, theological diversification, hermeneutical strategies in relation to the memory, and the effects of various exilic conditions in order to open new avenues of study into the history of Israelite religion and early Judaism. Features: An introductory essay that presents a history of scholarship and an overview of the collection Ten essays examining the rhetoric of exile in the prophets Current, thorough approaches to the issues and problems related to historical and cultural features of exile in biblical literature