This open access book provides an overview of Felix Klein’s ideas, highlighting developments in university teaching and school mathematics related to Klein’s thoughts, stemming from the last century. It discusses the meaning, importance and the legacy of Klein’s ideas today and in the future, within an international, global context. Presenting extended versions of the talks at the Thematic Afternoon at ICME-13, the book shows that many of Klein’s ideas can be reinterpreted in the context of the current situation, and offers tips and advice for dealing with current problems in teacher education and teaching mathematics in secondary schools. It proves that old ideas are timeless, but that it takes competent, committed and assertive individuals to bring these ideas to life. Throughout his professional life, Felix Klein emphasised the importance of reflecting upon mathematics teaching and learning from both a mathematical and a psychological or educational point of view. He also strongly promoted the modernisation of mathematics in the classroom, and developed ideas on university lectures for student teachers, which he later consolidated at the beginning of the last century in the three books on elementary mathematics from a higher standpoint.
These three volumes constitute the first complete English translation of Felix Klein’s seminal series “Elementarmathematik vom höheren Standpunkte aus”. “Complete” has a twofold meaning here: First, there now exists a translation of volume III into English, while until today the only translation had been into Chinese. Second, the English versions of volume I and II had omitted several, even extended parts of the original, while we now present a complete revised translation into modern English. The volumes, first published between 1902 and 1908, are lecture notes of courses that Klein offered to future mathematics teachers, realizing a new form of teacher training that remained valid and effective until today: Klein leads the students to gain a more comprehensive and methodological point of view on school mathematics. The volumes enable us to understand Klein’s far-reaching conception of elementarisation, of the “elementary from a higher standpoint”, in its implementation for school mathematics./div This volume II presents a paradigmatic realisation of Klein’s approach of elementarisation for teacher education. It is shown how the various geometries, elaborated particularly since the beginning of the 19th century, are revealed as becoming unified in a new restructured geometry. As Klein liked to stress: “Projective geometry is all geometry”. Non-Euclidean geometry proves to constitute a part of this unifying process. The teaching of geometry is discussed in a separate chapter, which provides moreover important information on the history of geometry teaching and an international comparison.
This comprehensive treatment features analytic formulas, enabling precise formulation of geometric facts, and it covers geometric manifolds and transformations, concluding with a systematic discussion of fundamentals. 1939 edition. Includes 141 figures.