Famine Relief in Warlord China

Author: Pierre Fuller

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN:

Category: History

Page:

View: 346

Famine Relief in Warlord China is a reexamination of disaster responses during the greatest ecological crisis of the pre-Nationalist Chinese republic. In 1920–1921, drought and ensuing famine devastated more than 300 counties in five northern provinces, leading to some 500,000 deaths. Long credited to international intervention, the relief effort, Pierre Fuller shows, actually began from within Chinese social circles. Indigenous action from the household to the national level, modeled after Qing-era relief protocol, sustained the lives of millions of the destitute in Beijing, in the surrounding districts of Zhili (Hebei) Province, and along the migrant and refugee trail in Manchuria, all before joint foreign–Chinese international relief groups became a force of any significance. Using district gazetteers, stele inscriptions, and the era’s vibrant Chinese press, Fuller reveals how a hybrid civic sphere of military authorities working with the public mobilized aid and coordinated migrant movement within stricken communities and across military domains. Ultimately, the book’s spotlight on disaster governance in northern China in 1920 offers new insights into the social landscape just before the region’s descent, over the next decade, into incessant warfare, political struggle, and finally the normalization of disaster itself.

Struggling with Famine in Warlord China

Social Networks, Achievements, and Limitations, 1920-21

Author: Pierre Emery Fuller

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 426

View: 822

This dissertation makes the case that in China's most severe food crisis of the first quarter of the 20th century, the great north China famine of 1920-21, considerable life-saving relief was generated by three segments of society largely neglected in the existing literature: Buddhist and other native charity efforts working along parallel social channels to the better-publicized missionary and international relief groups; the Republic's maligned military establishment; and officials and residents of the stricken communities themselves who were operating largely "below the radar" of the distant, mostly city-based chroniclers of the famine whose interpretations have been privileged in subsequent histories. In the process, this study makes several historiographic interventions: first, it expands the study of modern north China relief beyond the imperial and modern state apparatus. In doing so, one can identify a paternalistic relief culture shared by state and extragovernmental actors in the countryside that operated at multiple levels simultaneously and that persisted despite the Qing collapse and increased marginalization of China's interior. Second, this study offers a corrective to the scholarly emphasis on the culture of "modernizing" elites in more affluent and Western-influenced south China and the treaty ports, arguing that the prominence of southern elites in late 19th and early 20th century disaster relief elsewhere in the country was more a function of shifting economic resources to the coasts and new forms of media than the emergence of a new "modern" civic or humanitarian consciousness. This corrective allows us to trace continuities with traditional Chinese society stretching well into the 20th century, to appreciate the social dynamic of inland communities, and to recognize the possibility of multiple, alternative modernities coinciding in China's many regions. Finally, this study suggests that the dating of China's descent into a country of predatory state policies, widespread social dislocation, and incessant civil war - all the hallmarks of "warlordism"--Be pushed back to the mid-1920s, half a decade after our famine. In short, this dissertation offers grounds for the reconsideration of the trajectory of modern Chinese history through the prism of social responses to disaster in the early 20th century.

Modern Erasures

Revolution, the Civilizing Mission, and the Shaping of China's Past

Author: Pierre Fuller

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 825

Modern Erasures is an ambitious and innovative study of the acts of epistemic violence behind China's transformation from a semicolonized republic to a Communist state over the twentieth century. Pierre Fuller charts the pedigree of Maoist thought and practice between the May Fourth movement of 1919 and the peak of the Cultural Revolution in 1969 to shed light on the relationship between epistemic and physical violence, book burning and bloodletting, during China's revolutions. Focusing on communities in remote Gansu province and the wider region over half a century, Fuller argues that in order to justify the human cost of revolution and the building of the national party-state, a form of revolutionary memory developed in China on the nature of social relations and civic affairs in the recent past. Through careful analysis of intellectual and cultural responses to, and memories of, earthquakes, famine and other disaster events in China, this book shows how the Maoist evocation of the 'old society' earmarked for destruction was only the most extreme phase of a transnational, colonial-era conversation on the 'backwardness' of rural communities.

The Cambridge History of China

Author: Denis Crispin Twitchett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: China

Page: 1002

View: 285

International scholars and sinologists discuss culture, economic growth, social change, political processes, and foreign influences in China since the earliest pre-dynastic period.

Managing Famine, Flood and Earthquake in China

Tianjin, 1958-85

Author: Lauri Paltemaa

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 551

China suffers frequently from many types of natural disasters, which have affected the lives of many millions of Chinese. The steps which the Chinese state has taken to prevent disasters, mitigate their consequences, and reconstruct in the aftermath of disasters are therefore key issues. This book examines the single metropolis of Tianjin in northern China, a city which has suffered particularly badly from natural disasters – the great famine of 1958-61, the great flood of 1963 and the great earthquake of 1976. It discusses how the city managed these disasters, what policies and measures were taken to prevent and mitigate disasters, and to promote reconstruction afterwards. It also explores who suffered from and who benefited from the disasters. Overall, the book shows how disaster management was erratic, sometimes managed highly efficiently and in other cases disappointingly delayed and inept. It concludes that, although the Maoist state possessed formidable resources, disaster management was always constrained by other political and economic considerations, and was never an automatic priority.

Famine Foods

Plants We Eat to Survive

Author: Paul E. Minnis

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 521

How people eat today is a record of food use through the ages, and Famine Foods offers the first ever overview of the use of alternative foods during food shortages. Paul E. Minnis explores the unusual plants that have helped humanity survive throughout history.

Food Insecurity

A Matter of Justice, Sovereignty, and Survival

Author: Tamar Mayer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 232

This book explores the experiences, causes, and consequences of food insecurity in different geographical regions and historical eras. It highlights collective and political actions aimed at food sovereignty as solutions to mitigate suffering. Despite global efforts to end hunger, it persists and has even increased in some regions. This book provides interdisciplinary and historical perspectives on the manifestations of food insecurity, with case studies illustrating how people coped with violations of their rights during the war-time deprivation in France; the neoliberal incursions on food supply in Turkey, Greece, and Nicaragua; as well as the consequences of radioactive contamination of farmland in Japan. This edited collection adopts an analytical approach to understanding food insecurity by examining how the historical and political situations in different countries have resulted in an unfolding dialectic of food insecurity and resistance, with the most marginalized people—immigrants, those in refugee camps, poor peasants, and so forth—consistently suffering the worst effects, yet still maintaining agency to fight back. The book tackles food insecurity on a local as well as a global scale and will thus be useful for a broad range of audiences, including students, scholars, and the general public interested in studying food crises, globalization, and current global issues.

Fred Barton and the Warlordsäó» Horses of China

How an American Cowboy Brought the Old West to the Far East

Author: Larry Weirather

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 562

In the years before World War I, Montana cowboy Fred Barton was employed by Czar Nicholas II to help establish a horse ranch—the largest in the world—in Siberia to supply the Russian military. Barton later assembled a group of American rodeo stars and drove horses across Mongolia for the war-lords of northern China, creating a 250,000 acre ranch in Shanxi Province. Along the way, Barton became part of an unofficial U.S. intelligence network in the Far East, bred a new type of horse from Russian, Mongolian and American stock and promoted the lifestyle of the open range cowboy. Returning to America, he married one of the wealthiest widows in the Southwest and hobnobbed with Western film stars at a time when Hollywood was constructing the modern myth of the Old West, just as open range cowboy life was disappearing.

State, Society and Governance in Republican China

Author: Mechthild Leutner

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 144

View: 873

This book offers research on state and society in Republican China, exploring various aspects of Republican history from the governance perspective. Governance is understood in a broader sense as interactions between state and society, including both the discursive process of social decision-making and the provision of (non-)material public goods. The topics highlighted are: the internationalization of disaster relief, the philanthropic governance of overseas Chinese in Xiamen, the transformation of the cultural group "World Society," historical writing, intellectual autonomy, as well as the construction of warlord identity. (Series: Chinese History and Society / Berliner China-Hefte - Vol. 43)

Modern Erasures

Revolution, the Civilizing Mission, and the Shaping of China's Past

Author: Pierre Fuller

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page:

View: 567

Modern Erasures is an ambitious and innovative study of the acts of epistemic violence behind China's transformation from a semicolonized republic to a Communist state over the twentieth century. Pierre Fuller charts the pedigree of Maoist thought and practice between the May Fourth movement of 1919 and the peak of the Cultural Revolution in 1969 to shed light on the relationship between epistemic and physical violence, book burning and bloodletting, during China's revolutions. Focusing on communities in remote Gansu province and the wider region over half a century, Fuller argues that in order to justify the human cost of revolution and the building of the national party-state, a form of revolutionary memory developed in China on the nature of social relations and civic affairs in the recent past. Through careful analysis of intellectual and cultural responses to, and memories of, earthquakes, famine and other disaster events in China, this book shows how the Maoist evocation of the 'old society' earmarked for destruction was only the most extreme phase of a transnational, colonial-era conversation on the 'backwardness' of rural communities.