This book is an innovative and critical contribution to the study of the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) people in the context of Europe. Combining legal and Foucauldian approaches, it investigates the ways in which current discourses about LGBTIQ rights in Europe are tightly bound to contemporary debates about national and trans-national citizenship. The author defines and analyzes the concept of 'multisexual citizenship' to illustrate new, flexible forms of sexual and gendered citizenship that could radically transform practices of citizenship and the current human rights framework in Europe. She does this by combining critical deconstructions of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights with ethnographic observations and sociological analysis. This interdisciplinary work will appeal to sociologists, lawyers and researchers of gender and LGBTIQ rights.
Sexual citizenship has become a key concept in the social sciences. It describes the rights and responsibilities of citizens in sexual and intimate life, including debates over equal marriage and women's human rights, as well as shaping thinking about citizenship more generally. But what does it mean in a continually changing political landscape of gender and sexuality? In this timely intervention, Diane Richardson examines the normative underpinnings and varied critiques of sexual citizenship, asking what they mean for its future conceptual and empirical development, as well as for political activism. Clearly written, the book shows how the field of sexuality and citizenship connects to a range of important areas of debate including understandings of nationalism, identity, neoliberalism, equality, governmentality, individualization, colonialism, human rights, globalization and economic justice. Ultimately this book calls for a critical rethink of sexual citizenship. Illustrating her argument with examples drawn from across the globe, Richardson contends that this is essential if scholars want to understand the sexual politics that made the field of sexuality and citizenship studies what it is today, and to enable future analyses of the sexual inequalities that continue to mark the global order.
The distinction between male and female, or masculinity and femininity, has long been considered to be foundational to society and the organization of its institutions. In the last decades, the massive literature on gender has challenged this discursive construction. Gender has been disassembled and reassembled, variously considered as social practice, performance, ideology. Yet the binary relationship ‘man/woman’ continues to be a characteristic trait of Western societies. This book gathers together contributions by experts in various fields – including law, sociology, philosophy and anthropology – to pin down the relationship between institutions and the gender binary. Centrally, it examines the way in which the present-day gender binary is shored up by the conceptualization and regulation of sex and gender at societal and institutional levels. Based on this examination, it tackles the issue of what the practices and processes of subjectivation are that preserve this binary distinction as the foundation of gender. Each of the chapters discusses this pressing question with a view to considering whether current equality policies challenge hierarchical and hegemonic understandings of gender or are the residue of a sexist understanding of gender. This analysis then paves the way for a more general and crucial question: whether institutions can, or should, contribute to the process of deconstructing the gender binary.
This book explores the relationship between social movements, sexual citizenship and change in the context of Southern Europe. Providing a comparative analysis about LGBT issues in Italy, Spain and Portugal, it discusses how activism can generate political, legal and cultural change in post-dictatorial, Catholic and EU-focused countries. The significance of Portugal regarding sexual citizenship stems from the impressive pace at which LGBT rights were granted after the emergence of a LGBT movement. In some respects, Portugal led the way for LGBT rights in Europe. Offering a close engagement with sociological analysis of Spanish and Italian contemporary LGBT politics, this case study provides an opportunity to rethink collective action and sexual citizenship, contributing to timely theoretical and political debates. Based on extensive fieldwork and original qualitative analysis, the book suggests the notion of 'syncretic activism' as a third way of approaching the debate between assimilationism and radicalism. The notion of syncretic activism offers a synthesis of transformative, transgressive and deconstructionist approaches to identity within diversity politics. These findings have direct implications in the understanding and political potential of collective action, highlighting the complex interplay between aims, strategies and outcomes of LGBT activism in Southern Europe.
The Changing Politics of Citizenship and Law Reform
Author: Carl Stychin
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Governing Sexuality explores issues of sexual citizenship and law reform in the United Kingdom and Continental Europe today. Across western and eastern Europe,lesbians and gay men are increasingly making claims for equal status, grounded in the language of rights and citizenship, and using the language of international human rights and European law. This book uses same sex sexualities as a prism through which to explore broader questions of legal and political theory concerning democratic legitimacy; rights discourse; national sovereignty and identity; citizenship; transnationalism; and globalisation. Case studies are widely drawn: from New Labour's sexual politics in the UK to the decriminalisation of same-sex sexualities under pressure from the EU in Romania; to new civil solidarity laws in France.
Many people in Europe are stigmatised because of their sexual orientation or gender identity and cannot fully enjoy their universal human rights. Some of them are victims of violence, others have fled to Europe from countries where they risk being persecuted. Organisations representing lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons have been denied registration or banned from organising peaceful meetings in some states in Europe. Too few politicians have taken a firm stand against homophobic and transphobic expressions, discrimination and violence.This report presents the results of the largest socio-legal study ever carried out on discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in the 47 member states of the Council of Europe. Six thematic chapters give a broad overview of the human rights situation of LGBT persons and recommendations are provided for developing and implementing effective measures to address discrimination.The report is intended as a tool for dialogue with authorities and other stakeholders. It constitutes a baseline study for further action in both legislative and policy fields to ensure that all LGBT people can effectively exercise their human rights.
Globalization, Human Rights, and the Citizenship Gap
Author: Alison Brysk
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Political Science
Globalization pushes people "out of place"--across borders, out of traditions, into markets, and away from the rights of national citizenship. But globalization also contributes to the spread of international human rights ideas and institutions. This book analyzes the impact of these contradictory trends, with a focus on vulnerable groups such as migrants, laborers, women, and children. Theoretical essays by Richard Falk, Ronnie Lipschutz, Aihwa Ong, and Saskia Sassen rethink the shifting nature of citizenship. This collection advances the debate on globalization, human rights, and the meaning of citizenship.
With this benchmark work, lesbian and gay studies comes of age. Drawing from a rich team of global contributors and carefully structured to elucidate the core issues in the field, it constitutes an unparalleled resource for teaching, research and debate. The Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies is organized into 4 sections: History & Theory: This covers the roots of lesbian and gay studies, the institutionalization of the subject in the Academy, the 'naturalness' of heterosexuality, science and sexuality, the comparative sociology of homosexualities and the heterosexual//homosexual division. Identity & Community: This examines the formation of gay and lesbian identities communities and movements, 'cyber-queer' research, sexuality and space, generational issues in lesbian and gay lifecycles and the subject of bisexuality Institutions: This investigates questions of the governance of sexualities, lesbian and gay health, sexualities and education, religion and homosexuality, homosexuality and the law, gay and lesbian workers, homosexuality and the family, and lesbian, gay and queer encounters with the media and popular culture Politics: This explores the formation of the gay and lesbian movements, impact of globalization, antigay and lesbian violence, nationalism and transnationalism in lesbian and gay studies and sexual citizenship. The result is an authoritative book that demarcates the field, stimulates critical discussion and provides lesbian and gay studies with an enriching focal reference point. It is, quite simply, a breakthrough work that will galvanize discussion and research for years to come.
Building on the growing body of theoretical literature on the gendered nature of nationalism, this book offers a systematic examination of similarities and differences in the construction of gender and national identities in post-communist societies of Eastern and East Central Europe as well as established and the more stable democracies of Western Europe. It points to some of the key sources of inevitable tensions in the future united Europe, which stem from different perceptions of national and gender roles in different parts of the continent.
Thanks to the opening of archives and the forging of exchanges between Russian and Western scholars interested in the history of medicine, it is now possible to write new forms of social and political history in the Soviet medical field. Using the lenses of critical social histories of healthcare and medical science, and looking at both new material from Russian archives and interviews with those who experienced the Soviet health system, the contributors to this volume explore the ways experts and the Soviet state radically reshaped medical provision after the Revolution of 1917. Soviet Medicine presents the work of an international group of leading scholars. Twelve essays—treating subjects that span the 74-year history of the Soviet Union—cover such diverse topics as how epidemiologists handled plague on the Soviet borderlands in the revolutionary era, how venereologists fighting sexually transmitted disease struggled to preserve the patient’s right to secrecy, and how Soviet forensic experts falsified the evidence of the Katyn Forest massacre of 1940. This important volume demonstrates the crucial role played by medical science, practice, and culture in the shaping of a modern Soviet Union and illustrates how the study of Soviet medical history can benefit historians of medicine, science, the Soviet Union, and social and gender historians.