"These studies recover the historical roots of thinking that are in conflict with, and critical of, present-day tendencies. Criminological theory over the last few decades has oscillated between extremes: on one side there are calls for increasing the state exercise of punitive power as the only means of providing security, in the face of both urban and international rime; while the other side highlights the need for reducing the exercise of punitive power because of the paradoxical effects that it produces. Useful for academics, practitioners, professionals and students, this book will certainly contribute to a wider awareness in crime prevention and criminal justice."--Publisher's website.
At the start of the 21st century, some 2 million Europeans were detained against their will in prisons, police stations, mental health institutions or other detention centres. It is generally recognised that protection against the arbitrary deprivation of liberty and the prevention of ill-treatment reflect the extent to which states respect human rights and human dignity, when these can be jeopardised by demands for security and efficiency. This book describes the European system for the protection of people deprived of their liberty and how this has evolved over the past fifty years. It discusses the different initiatives taken by the Council of Europe in this area, of which the European Convention on Human Rights and the Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment are the most significant.
This collection of essays deals with central issues relating to the rule of law, individual rights and the politics of penal reform. The issues examined include juvenile justice, criminal violence, feminism and criminology, civil liberties, police powers, justice in prisons and the necessity for social life to be regulated by law. The emphasis throughout is upon specific concrete problems and the formulation of possible solutions. In marked contrast to many radical criminologists, who have fashioned utopian visions of a socialist society untroubled by problems of social regulation, each contributor to this book focuses sharply upon tangible problems and workable alternatives. By eschewing global theories of either crime or law, and by avoiding generalized "radical" recipes for change, these essays provide an important counter-balance to recent libertarian, anarchistic and utopian trends in modern criminology.
Drawing on the expertise and experience of contributors from a wide range of academic, professional and judicial backgrounds, this handbook critically analyses the laws, policies and practices that govern detention, punishment and the enforcement of sentences in the international criminal justice context. Comprehensive and innovative, it also explores broader normative questions related to international punishment and makes recommendations for the international penal system's development.
In Criminal Punishment and Restorative Justice author David J. Cornwell draws on bedrock issues in contemporary criminology and penology in order to contrast punitive and restorative responses to crime. He then looks at the forces that serve to constrain more emphatic adoption of restorative methods and - against a backdrop of increasing worldwide reliance on custody, 'touch solutions' and punitive thinking - examines the claims of restorative justice to mainstream adoption by governments. The book also provides an international perspective on the needs of victims and offenders alike and assesses how the worldwide trend towards punitive methods can be reversed by challenging offenders to take responsibility for their offences and to make practical reparation for the harm that they have caused. Such developments, the author argues, would serve to make 'corrections' more effective, civilised, humane, pragmatic, 'non-fanciful' and less driven by the often ill-considered politics of the moment.
European prison law and policy has a growing impact. This book explores its development, analyses the penological and human rights foundations on which it is based and lays out general principles that underlie European prison law and policy, emphasising the principle of using imprisonment as a last resort and the recognition of prisoners' rights.
Prisoners’ Rights: Principles and Practice considers prisoners’ rights from socio-legal and philosophical perspectives, and assesses the advantages and problems of a rights-based approach to imprisonment. At a time of record levels of imprisonment and projected future expansion of the prison population, this work is timely. The discussion in this book is not confined to a formal legal analysis, although it does include discussion of the developing jurisprudence on prisoners’ rights. It offers a socio-legal rather than a purely black letter approach, and focuses on the experience of imprisonment. It draws on perspectives from a range of disciplines to illuminate how prisoners’ rights operate in practice. The text also contributes to debates on imprisonment and citizenship, the treatment of women prisoners, and social exclusion. This book will be of interest to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of penology and criminal justice, as well as professionals working within the penal system.
Sentencing Policy and Social Justice argues that the promotion of social justice should become a key objective of sentencing policy, advancing the argument that the legitimacy of sentencing ultimately depends upon the strength of the relationship between social morality and penal ideology. It sheds light on how shared moral values can influence sentencing policy at a time when relationships of community appear increasingly fragmented, arguing that sentencing will be better placed to make a positive contribution to social justice if it becomes more sensitive to the commonly-accepted moral boundaries that underpin adherence to the 'rule of law'. The need to reflect public opinion in sentencing has received significant attention more recently, with renewed interest in jury sentencing, 'stakeholder sentencing', and the involvement of community views when regulating policy. The author, however, advocates a different approach, combining a new theoretical focus with practical suggestions for reform, and arguing that the contribution sentencing can make to social justice necessitates a fundamental change in the way shared values about the advantages of punishment are reflected in penal ideology and sentencing policy. Using examples from international, comparative and domestic contexts to advance the moral and ethical case for challenging the existing theories of sentencing, the book develops the author's previous theoretical ideas and outlines how these changes could be given practical shape within the context of sentencing in England and Wales. It assesses the consequences for penal governance due to increased state regulation of discretionary sentencing power and examines the prospects for achieving the kind of moral transformation regarded as necessary to reverse such a move. To illustrate these issues each chapter focuses on a particularly problematic area for contemporary sentencing policy; namely, the sentencing of women; the sentencing of irregular migrants; sentencing for offences of serious public disorder; and sentencing for financial crime.