Martin Kitchen’s compelling account of Europe between the wars sets the twenty-year crisis within the context of the profound sense of cultural malaise shared by many philosophers and artists, the economic crises that plagued a Europe ruined by war and the social upheavals caused by widespread unemployment and grinding poverty amid a noticeable improvement of living standards. This thoroughly revised edition, with completely new sections on intellectual, cultural and social history is richly illustrated with contemporary photographs. It is an up-to-date and lively account of a critical period of European history when the old world collapsed, the dictators offered seemingly exciting alternatives, and democracies were put to the supreme test. Written for undergraduate students studying 20th century European history, this new edition of a classic will challenge and provoke a deeper understanding of the interwar years.
The central aim of this interdisciplinary book is to make visible the intentionality behind the 'forgetting' of European women's contributions during the period between the two world wars in the context of politics, culture and society. It also seeks to record and analyse women's agency in the construction and reconstruction of Europe and its nation states after the First World War, and thus to articulate ways in which the writing of women's history necessarily entails the rewriting of everyone's history.
East Central Europe Between The Two World Wars is a sophisticated political history of East Central Europe in the interwar years. Written by an eminent scholar in the field, it is an original contribution to the literature on the political cultures of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and the Baltic states.
Gale Researcher Guide for: Europe between the Wars: From Peace Settlement to the Brink of War is selected from Gale's academic platform Gale Researcher. These study guides provide peer-reviewed articles that allow students early success in finding scholarly materials and to gain the confidence and vocabulary needed to pursue deeper research.
Imagination and Politics in Britain Between the Wars
Author: Luisa Passerini
Combining the history of ideas and the history of emotions, this work explores the convergence between political and cultural ideas of Europe and the idea of love in the period between the two world wars. It investigates European unity from a political viewpoint, but also from cultural and symbolic ones, taking a critical stand towards Euro-centricism.
The European Economy Between the Wars provides a full and up-to-date economic history of Europe in the inter-war period. The authors place the Great Depression of 1929-33 and the associated financial crisis at the centre of the narrative, and present these as both the culmination of the economic consequences of the First World War, the post-war peace treaties, and the policies and practices of the 1920s, and as a powerful influence on the subsequent economic history of the 1930s. Indescribing and explaining these developments, the authors show that errors in international economic policy, especially the commitment to the gold standard, were a principal cause of both the deep crisis and the partial recovery. The overall theme is illustrated at every point by a discussion of similarities and contrasts in the economic history and policies of individual countries, large and small. The basic approach is chronological, the style is clear and straightforward, and the book is accessible to students in a range of disciplines. The work takes full account of recent research, and there is an annotated guide to further reading with a substantial bibliography.
" --Journal of Polish Jewish StudiesAn illuminating study of the demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic condition of East Central European Jewry, the book focuses on the internal life of Jewish communities in the region and on the relationships between Jews and gentiles in a nationalist environment.
The financial history of interwar Europe was dominated by catastrophic episodes of hyper-inflation, dramatic exchange rate crises, massive and destabilizing movements of gold and capital, and extensive banking failures. In their attempt to restore and sustain the gold standard as the basis of the international monetary system, many countries were compelled to resort to deflationary fiscal and monetary policies of exceptional severity. The policies thus adopted in the 1920s were a major cause of the Great Depression of 1929-33; and this in turn exerted a powerful influence on the subsequent political and economic history of the 1930s. This collection of essays is the work of an international network of economic historians from Europe and the United States convened by the European Science Foundation. It brings together, in an accessible style, current knowledge and understanding of the nature and effects of these developments in banking, currency, and finance in the interwar period. The topics are examined at three levels. In Part I a substantial introductory survey of the central issues over the entire period is followed by special studies of the banking crises, the global capital flows, and the interrelationship of economic and political policies, with each of these themes considered in an international perspective. Part II is devoted to illuminating comparative analyses of the financial and exchange policies of pairs of countries; France and Italy, Britain and Germany, Sweden and Finland, and Belgium and France. In Part III the essays move to the level of individual countries and each contributor explores topics such as the form and efficacy of official banking and monetary policies, the role of the central bank, movements in the money supply and prices, the relationship between the banks and the industrial sector, changes in exchange rates and foreign capital investment. The volume covers all the major countries, and also makes available the results of recent research on banking and finance in smaller countries, such as Spain, Austria, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Bulgaria, and Ireland. The questions addressed by this book, and the temes and patterns it reveals, are relevant both to economic and political historians of the years between the two world wars, and to those interested in contemporary banking and financial problems.
Author: Charles S Baylis Professor of History Helmut Gruber
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Category: Political Science
A pioneering attempt to place the role of women within history during the inter-war years when both women's and socialist movements became prominent, this comparative study includes 11 west European countries.
The hotel that I love like a fatherland is situated in one of the great port cities of Europe, and the heavy gold Antiqua letters in which its banal name is spelled out shining across the roofs of the gently banked houses are in my eye metal flags, metal bannerets that instead of fluttering shine out their greeting. In the 1920s and 30s, Joseph Roth travelled extensively in Europe, leading a peripatetic life living in hotels and writing about the towns through which he passed. Incisive, nostalgic, curious and sharply observed - and collected together here for the first time - his pieces paint a picture of a continent racked by change yet clinging to tradition. From the 'compulsive' exercise regime of the Albanian army, the rickety industry of the new oil capital of Galicia, and 'split and scalped' houses of Tirana forced into modernity, to the individual and idiosyncratic characters that Roth encounters in his hotel stays, these tender and quietly dazzling vignettes form a series of literary postcards written from a bygone world, creeping towards world war.
The period spanning the two World Wars was unquestionably the most catastrophic in Europe's history. Historians have been drawn to its exceptionally dramatic and harrowing events, as bookshops continue to stock new studies on Hitler, Stalin, Churchill, the Holocaust, and the battles of the two World Wars with monotonous regularity. There is a deeper need, however, to explain why Europe experienced so many conflicts, revolutions, coup d'états, and civil wars within such a short space of time? Why did much of Europe succumb to authoritarian rule and why did political violence become so endemic? Why was mass politics followed by mass murder? Why did Europe experience a 'Thirty Years' War'? Another challenge is to explain the diversity of experiences: why some European societies were not traumatized by war and invasion, why liberal democracy survived throughout north-western Europe, why general living standards continued to rise, and why the status of women continued to improve. The Oxford Handbook of European History 1914-1945 looks afresh at this troubled and complicated age. It does so by taking comparative and transnational approaches rather than merely focusing on individual national experiences. Its features a collection of distinguished historians who explain the patterns of change and continuity that applied generally, while at the same time accounting for various regional and local articulations. Among the themes covered are political economy, international relations, genocide, colonialism, gender, sexuality, human rights, welfare, rural politics, labour and youth, as well as the era's more distinctive features, such as fascism, Stalinism, the Great Depression, trench warfare and the ethnic cleansing. The Handbook serves as a guide for revising the 1914-1945 era, and for how to write histories that take the whole Europe as their subject and not merely its constituent parts: histories of Europe rather than merely in Europe.
This edited volume arose from an international workshop convened in 2006 by Feldman and Turda with Tudor Georgescu, supported by Routledge, and the universities of Oxford, Brookes, Northampton and CEU (Budapest). As the field of fascist studies continues to integrate more fully into pan-European studies of the twentieth century, and given the increasing importance of secular ‘political religion’ as a taxonomic tool for understanding such revolutionary movements, this collection of essays considers the intersection between institutional Christian faiths, theology and congregations on the one hand, and fascist ideology on the other. In light of recent debates concerning the intersecting secularisation of religion and (usually Christian-based) the sacralisation of politics, "Clerical Fascism" in Interwar Europe approaches such conundrums from an alternative perspective: How, in Europe between the wars, did Christian clergy, laity and institutions respond to the rise of national fascist movements? In doing so, this volume provides case studies from the vast majority of European countries with analyses that are both original in intent and comprehensive in scope. In dealing with the relationship of various interwar fascist movements and their respective national religious institutions, this edited collection promises to significantly contribute to relevant academic historiographies; and as such, will appeal to a wide readership. This book was previously published as a special issue of Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions.
Institutions and Civil Society Between the World Wars
Author: Marta Petricioli
Publisher: Peter Lang
Le processus d'union européenne voit aujourd'hui un point d'arrêt sur le plan politique et institutionnel, malgré les étapes décisives réalisées après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il reste en effet à affronter des thèmes et des problèmes qui, pendant l'entre-deux-guerres, animèrent le débat entre les pionniers de l'européanisme. Si, à l'époque, leurs propositions restèrent sans suite, ayant une issue destructrice pour la paix et l'Europe, cet héritage idéal si précieux a permis une continuité et de germer par la suite. Ce livre a pour but de présenter une série d'idées, d'initiatives, de programmes, qui entre les deux guerres entendirent promouvoir le maintien d'un ordre international pacifié, partant du névralgique contexte européen. Il en ressort ainsi un humus significatif et transversal, opposé aux tendances inexorablement prédominantes dans la politique et les institutions, mais aussi dans la société civile. Ses animateurs oeuvrèrent dans les organisations internationales, les partis, les mouvements, les associations de type non seulement politique, de même que dans l'historiographie, la littérature, le théâtre, le cinéma, le sport, signalant les éléments en vue d'une renaissance de la cohabitation pacifique sur le plan européen et international. Despite the decisive steps forward made since the Second World War, the process of European unification has come to a standstill at a political and institutional level. Issues and problems which were already the subject of debate among the pioneers of Europeanism between the two wars have still to be addressed. Although at the time their proposal as a whole went unheeded, with destructive consequences for peace and for Europe, this valuable legacy of ideals has nevertheless guaranteed a continuity and a subsequent blossoming. The purpose of this book is to examine a series of ideas, initiatives and programmes which, between the two World Wars, aimed to promote the maintenance of a pacified international order, starting from the crucial European context. What emerges is a significant and transversal humus, that countered the inexorably prevailing tendencies in politics and institutions, and even in society. Its exponents operated in international organisations, in parties, and in movements and associations not necessarily of a political stamp, as well as in historiography, literature, theatre, cinema and sport, laying the foundations for a rebirth of peaceful co-existence at European and international level.
Wars cannot be fought and sustained without food and this unique collection explores the impact of war on food production, allocation and consumption in Europe in the twentieth century. A comparative perspective which incorporates belligerent, occupied and neutral countries provides new insights into the relationship between food and war. The analysis ranges from military provisioning and systems of food rationing to civilians' survival strategies and the role of war in stimulating innovation and modernization.
This volume explores the role of gender on both the home and fighting fronts in eastern Europe during World Wars I and II. By using gender as a category of analysis, the authors seek to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of the subjective nature of wartime experience and its representations. While historians have long equated the fighting front with the masculine and the home front with the feminine, the contributors challenge these dichotomies, demonstrating that they are based on culturally embedded assumptions about heroism and sacrifice. Major themes include the ways in which wartime experiences challenge traditional gender roles; postwar restoration of gender order; collaboration and resistance; the body; and memory and commemoration.