Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, May 2018

Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page:

View: 921

"With growth in Europe and Central Asia likely at its peak, this report addresses two questions. How well is the region prepared for an expected slowdown? How well has the economic upswing been used to adjust to the digital revolution? The report specifically focuses on cryptocurrency and blockchain activities in the region."

Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, May 2018

Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 230

With growth in Europe and Central Asia likely at its peak, this report addresses two questions. Howwell is the region prepared for an expected slowdown? How well has the economic upswing beenused to adjust to the digital revolution? The report specifically focuses on cryptocurrency andblockchain activities in the region.

Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, Spring 2021

Data, Digitalization, and Governance

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 154

View: 806

Governments play a critical role in the economies of Europe and Central Asia, where government expenditures are close to 40 percent of gross domestic product and the public sector accounts for nearly 27 percent of total employment, which is almost twice the global average. The public sector often attracts some of the best educated workers in the region. And support for a larger public sector is increasing due to aging populations and their growing health care and long-term care needs, rising inequality and greater support for redistribution, and increasing expenditures as governments address the challenges posed by the COVID-19 crisis. The significant role that government plays underscores the importance of the quality of governance in determining productivity and growth and effectively responding to the region’s economic and social challenges. Digital technology and the data revolution offer the potential to increase efficiency, transparency, responsiveness, and citizen trust, directly impacting the quality of government. Across the world, the quality of government is increasingly informed by the extent to which governments harness digital tools and GovTech to optimize management, service delivery, and overall state capacity. Technology and data are also key for fostering collaboration between governments and civil society to improve public sector efficiency and service delivery. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the costs associated with delaying digitalization and GovTech implementation and the opportunities that lie in public sector modernization.

Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in Europe and Central Asia 2018

The role of migration, rural women and youth in sustainable development

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 110

View: 741

The Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in Europe and Central Asia 2018 provides new evidence for monitoring trends in food security and nutrition within the framework of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. The in-depth analysis of progress made against Sustainable Development Goal 2 Target 2.1 (to end hunger and ensure access to food by all) and Target 2.2 (to end all forms of malnutrition), as well as the state of micronutrient deficiencies, is complemented by a review of recent policy measures taken to address food security and nutrition in all its dimensions. The Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region encompasses great economic, social and environmental diversity, and its countries are facing various food security and nutrition challenges. While they have made significant progress in reducing the prevalence of undernourishment over the past two decades, new evidence shows a stagnation of this trend, particularly in Central Asia. Malnutrition in one or more of its three main forms – undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight and obesity – is present to varying degrees in all countries of the region. Often, all three forms coexist, creating what is called the “triple burden of malnutrition.” Overweight among children and obesity among adults continue to rise – with now almost one-fourth of the region’s adults obese – and constitute a significant concern for future health and well-being and related costs. While poverty levels in most ECA countries have been declining in recent years, poverty coupled with inequality has led to increased vulnerability of disadvantaged groups and populations in rural and remote areas of low- and lower-middle-income countries. New analysis shows that adult women have a higher prevalence of severe food insecurity than men in some areas, pointing to gender inequalities that are reflected in access to food. Addressing gender and other inequalities is key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and heeding the call to “leave no one behind.” The publication’s focus this year is on migration, gender and youth and the linkages with rural development and food security in Europe and Central Asia. Migration is linked in multiple ways to gender, youth, and agricultural and rural development – both as a driver and possible source of development opportunities, with labour migration and remittances playing significant roles in the region. Changing migration processes need to be fully understood to better address the challenges of migration and harness the potential benefits for sustainable development and revitalized rural areas. Governments, public and private institutions, communities and other concerned parties must strengthen collaboration and scale up efforts towards achieving the goals of a thriving, healthy and food-secure region.

Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, April 2019

Financial Inclusion

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 94

View: 584

With slowing global growth and increasing uncertainty clouding the global economic prospects, the Europe and Central Asia region faces a more challenging context than previously envisioned. Growth in the emerging markets and developing economies in the region slowed in 2018 and is projected to decline to further in 2019, before picking up in 2020-21. What challenges does the region face in the coming year? In the long run, how should policy makers design policies that boost growth and help individuals and firms adjust to the interplay between globalization and technological change? Within the global context, this update summarizes the recent developments and outlook for the region. The focus of this issue is on financial inclusion in the region, as one of the important policy areas that can promote long-term growth, reduce poverty, and enhance resilience to shocks.

Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, Fall 2019

Migration and Brain Drain

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 136

View: 364

The share of immigrants in Western and Eastern Europe has increased rapidly over the past four decades. Today, one of every three immigrants in the world goes to Europe. Furthermore, although globally only one-third of migration takes place within regions, intraregional migration is especially high within Europe and Central Asia, with 80 percent of the region's emigrants choosing to move to other countries in the region. In high-income destination countries, migrants are often blamed for high unemployment and declining social services. There are also widespread concerns about brain drain in the migrant sending countries of Eastern Europe, the Western Balkans, and Central Asia. This update focuses on the design of policies on labor mobility and presents the trends, determinants, and impacts of low- and high-skilled labor.

Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, April 2016

The Impact of China on Europe and Central Asia

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page:

View: 964

The economies of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) are facing complex challenges. In the eastern part of the region the task of governments is to orchestrate a coordinated crisis response. The collapse of oil revenues and the associated decline in remittances triggered a chain reaction of shocks. Adjustment to these shocks requires a new monetary policy regime, resolution of serious fragilities in banking sectors, fiscal reforms that put government finances on a sustainable path, while guaranteeing fair burden sharing, and facilitation of job creation in sectors that compete internationally. In the western part of the region policy coordination within the European Union is being tested by the refugee crisis and a possible Brexit. Meanwhile the Chinese economy has slowed down and is in the process of fundamental transformation. Also these developments have major impacts on the ECA region. The report analyses all these challenges and points at the opportunities to become more competitive in global markets.

Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, Spring 2020

Fighting COVID-19

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 96

View: 600

In 2018, the World Bank launched the Human Capital Index (HCI), which is designed to highlight how improvements in current health and education outcomes will shape the productivity of the next generation of workers. The HCI measures the amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to have by age 18, in view of the risks of poor education and poor health that prevail in the country where she or he was born. This update presents the ECA- HCI, which extends the HCI in two dimensions to make it more relevant for countries in Europe and Central Asia. First, the extension includes quality-adjusted years of tertiary education, in addition to basic education. Second, going beyond the child stunting and adult survival rates, the ECA-HCI proxies health status by including risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and heavy drinking, which are prevalent in the region. This exercise reveals that a child born today in the average country in the region would be only half as productive as he/she could have been with full tertiary education and full health.

Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, Fall 2020

COVID-19 and Human Capital

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 180

View: 718

The COVID-19 pandemic has hit human capital directly in Europe and Central Asia, adversely affecting both education and health. School closures may lead to learning losses equivalent to a third to a full year of schooling, and they are likely to exacerbate inequalities, by disproportionately affecting students from disadvantaged backgrounds. The disease has already killed thousands of people, and some patients who survive will suffer long-term damage to their health. Recovery from the pandemic will thus require strong investment in education and health. This update examines human capital outcomes in the region and the ways in which the pandemic is likely to affect them. A focus on the quality of tertiary education and health risk factors of obesity, smoking, and heavy drinking highlights the challenges that are particularly important for the region. Post-COVID 19 policy initiatives to improve education and health will need to recognize the challenges posed by increased reliance on remote learning and the importance of being prepared for future pandemics, given the vulnerability of the region’s aging societies and the large number of people with underlying health risks.

Global Economic Prospects, January 2019

Darkening Skies

Author: World Bank Group

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 270

View: 605

The outlook for the global economy has darkened. Global financing conditions have tightened, industrial production has moderated, trade tensions have intensified, and some large emerging market and developing economies have experienced significant financial market stress. Faced with these headwinds, the recovery in emerging market and developing economies has lost momentum. Downside risks have become more acute and include the possibility of disorderly financial market movements and an escalation of trade disputes. Debt vulnerabilities in emerging market and developing economies, particularly low-income countries, have increased. More frequent severe weather events would raise the possibility of large swings in international food prices, which could deepen poverty. In this difficult environment, it is of paramount importance for emerging market and developing economies to rebuild policy buffers while laying a stronger foundation for future growth by boosting human capital, promoting trade integration, and addressing the challenges associated with informality,

World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update, October 2017

Balancing Act

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 122

View: 984

The economic outlook for the developing EAP region remains positive, and will benefit from an improved external environment as well as strong domestic demand. The growth of regional GDP excluding China is forecast to accelerate in 2018, while China's GDP growth is expected to decline in 2018 and 2019, although remain higher than most countries in the region. Poverty is projected to continue its long-term decline. Major downside risks include financial sector vulnerabilities, large fiscal imbalances, and the possible escalation of geopolitical tensions. The improved outlook for global growth provides a window of opportunity for developing EAP to continue to reduce key vulnerabilities and strengthen the foundations for sustained and inclusive growth in the medium term. The region could also benefit from further developing tourism sectors and deepening of regional integration, to offset the emerging global protectionism. And policies to ensure inclusive growth should involve ensuring economic mobility and security for all, going beyond the primary focus on reducing poverty.

2019 Global food policy report

Author: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 166

View: 625

IFPRI’s flagship report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2018, and considers challenges and opportunities for 2019. This year’s Global Food Policy Report highlights the urgency of rural revitalization to address a growing crisis in rural areas. Rural people around the world continue to struggle with food insecurity, persistent poverty and inequality, and environmental degradation. Policies, institutions, and investments that take advantage of new opportunities and technologies, increase access to basic services, create more and better rural jobs, foster gender equality, and restore the environment can make rural areas vibrant and healthy places to live and work. Drawing on recent findings, IFPRI researchers and other distinguished food policy experts consider critical aspects of rural revitalization.

2018 Global food policy report

Author: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 142

View: 541

IFPRI's flagship report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2017, and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2018 at the global and regional levels. This year's report looks at the impacts of greater global integration—including the movement of goods, investment, people, and knowledge—and the threat of current antiglobalization pressures. Drawing on recent research, IFPRI researchers and other distinguished food policy experts consider a range of timely topics: ■ How can the global food system deliver food security for all in the face of the radical changes taking place today? ■ What is the role of trade in improving food security, nutrition, and sustainability? ■ How can international investment best contribute to local food security and better food systems in developing countries? ■ Do voluntary and involuntary migration increase or decrease food security in source countries and host countries? ■ What opportunities does greater data availability open up for improving agriculture and food security? ■ How does reform of developed-country farm support policies affect global food security? ■ How can global governance structures better address problems of food security and nutrition? ■ What major trends and events affected food security and nutrition across the globe in 2017? The 2018 Global Food Policy Report also presents data tables and visualizations for several key food policy indicators, including country-level data on hunger, agricultural spending and research investment, and projections for future agricultural production and consumption. In addition to illustrative figures, tables, and a timeline of food policy events in 2017, the report includes the results of a global opinion poll on globalization and the current state of food policy.

The Authority of EU Law

Do We Still Believe in It?

Author: Wolfgang Heusel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 396

View: 421

This book analyses the supposed erosion of the authority of EU law from various perspectives: legislation, jurisprudence of national supreme and constitutional courts, enforcement of Single Market rules, of EMU rules and of the rule of law. It discusses the interdependence between the perceived legitimacy of the European project and respect for the authority of EU law.

Status of Digital Agriculture in 18 countries of Europe and Central Asia

Author: International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 102

View: 688

Digital agriculture has the potential to contribute to a more economically, environmentally and socially sustainable agriculture and meet the agricultural goals of a country or a region more effectively, and both ICTs and agriculture are important enablers in achieving SDGs. Most stakeholders have long recognized the need for national e-agricultural strategies. Nevertheless, most of the countries have not yet implemented a national strategy for the agricultural sector's use of ICTs. ITU Offices for Europe and CIS regions in collaboration with FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia developed this report on state of Digital Agriculture and Strategies developed in 18 countries. The emerging role of ICTs in Europe and CIS region is clearly observed and experienced as an engine for agricultural development, especially in view of the growing demand for reliable information and its quick access at all levels of the industry. The state of the digital agriculture ecosystem differs from country to country and is also fragmented by the regions, within the individual countries. There is an overwhelming wave of innovation in this area where a digital agriculture strategy can be helpful in finding the right path.

Green Finance and Investment Mobilising Finance for Climate Action in Georgia

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 92

View: 879

This report discusses key issues surrounding finance mobilisation for achieving Georgia’s climate change and green growth targets, and new investment opportunities for developing its capital market. The report focuses particularly on finance for climate change mitigation from various sources – ...

Connecting the Dots

Challenges to EU Connectivity in Central Asia

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 677

Despite ‘connectivity’ having become a new global buzzword, an exact definition of the term remains elusive. If various EU descriptions are combined, connectivity comprises of transport, digital, energy and human networks, as well as rules, standards and institutions which govern the flows of interaction. Moreover, the EU’s September 2018 connectivity strategy defines the European interpretation of connectivity as sustainable, comprehensive and rules-based. This European vision of connectivity also runs through the EU’s new Central Asia strategy, which was adopted on 15 May 2019. Compared with the previous Central Asia strategy from 2007, the new strategy places increased emphasis on encouraging economic development (‘prosperity’), comprehensive security (‘resilience’) and intra-regional cooperation between the Central Asian states: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In order for prosperity and resilience to be achieved, significant regional connectivity challenges – which largely stem from the legacy of the region’s Soviet past (including its dramatic rupture and the informal shadow networks that quickly took root) – need to be overcome. Furthermore, the EU’s strategy faces competing visions of connectivity from both China and Russia. This Brief looks into connectivity-related challenges and how they relate to the EU’s new Central Asia strategy and its vision of connectivity. This means examining the legacy of Soviet connectivity, the significance of regional informal networks, as well as the impact of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and Russia’s Great Eurasian Partnership.

World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update, April 2018

Enhancing Potential

Author: WorldBank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 182

View: 502

"Developing EAP grew slightly faster than anticipated in 2017. The growth ofregional GDP excluding China is forecast to accelerate in 2018, while China's GDP growth is expected to moderate as the economy keeps rebalancing. Major downside risks include volatility associated with faster than expected' monetary policy tightening in advanced economies and rising threat of trade restrictions. Developing EAP countries would need to get ready to respond to increasing interest rates and find ways to raise potential growth in the medium run. Specifically, amid the rising risk of protectionism and changes in the global manufacturing landscape, countries should continue to enhance trade facilitation and integration, increase the effectiveness of schools and education systems and upgrade capabilities to ensure that workers and managers have necessary skills. To provide economic security to the population, policies should focus on strengthening social assistance and insurance programs and increasing resilience to systemic shocks."

Beyond Europe: Central Asia, the Middle East and Global Economy

Author: Tadeusz Wallas

Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 693

Beyond Europe: Central Asia, the Middle East and Global Economy is an interesting look at the role of Central Asia and the Middle East in the global and Eurasian economy. Authors of this volume highlight the most important conditions of global and regional cooperation and political and economic competition. The volume provides a broad and critical analysis of regional geoeconomic trends. It underscores the most important conditions of global and regional cooperation and political and economic rivalry, as well as the position of regions in the economic and foreign policy of global and regional powers. The wide selection of examples means that the reader receives a large dose of knowledge about the political and economic realities of these regions, the ongoing processes, and the specifics of the rivalry.