Estuaries is a comprehensive introductory text emphasizing the physical processes involved in the mixing of sea and river water and the transport of fine sediments within the complex estuarine topographic context. The theoretical and mathematical formulation of these processes are treated at a fairly elementary level, and are used to develop a foundation for more extensive study. The second edition retains the classical approaches to the tidally averaged circulation and mixing conditions but broadens them to consider recent advances in the understanding of processes occurring within the tide. The scope has also been widened to include more detail on the morphology of estuaries and their development, the fluxes of suspended fine sediments, and the generation and maintenance of turbidity maximum. The book provides an excellent introduction for research students in oceanography, environmental science, geography, geology, and water and coastal engineering. It will also be useful as a reference book for those working in water quality, morphological modelling and estuarine environmental management.
This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.
Jim Green 1.1 THE THAMES ESTUARY:A PERSONAL VIEW For almost 50 years I have lived close to the Thames estuary (Figure 1.1). In the early 1950s, from our flat in Pimlico, we could walk along the embankment opposite Battersea Power Station. At low tide, the exposed mud had large red patches caused by the haemoglobin in innumerable tubificid worms. These formed the basis of a minor trade. Men with waders and sieves would collect the worms and sell them to the aquarium trade as food for fishes.The superabundance of these worms depended on the gross organic pollution of this reach of the Thames. Towards the end of the 1950s we moved to Teddington, within a few minutes' walk from the lock. Casual observation of the birds on the river indicates an increase in the piscivores over the last 20 years.Cormorants tPhalacrocorax carbo) are regularly seen, and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) are more abundant. On a good day it is possible to see up to eight herons around the weir and below the lock. Another bird that is now common place in the area is the great-crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus).The regular mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)are some times joined by tufted duck (Aythafuligula)and mandarin (Aixgalericulata).
Multi-channel estuaries, such as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Scheldt in the Netherlands, have characteristics of both the river and the sea, forming a unique environment influenced by tidal movements of the sea and freshwater flow of the river. This study addresses a number of knowledge gaps in multi-channel estuaries by developing a predictive analytical approach for salinity intrusion and discharge estimate in multi-channel estuaries. The new approach agrees well with 1-D hydrodynamic models and observations, indicating its applicability in practice. Most importantly, the study has successfully developed a new theory and a new equation to quantify tidal pumping due to ebb-flood channel residual circulation and the related salt dispersion.
In Physical Processes in Estuaries the present day knowledge of the physics of transport phenomena in estuaries and their mathematical treatment is summarized: It is divided into following parts: - Water movements in estuaries - Estuarine fronts and river plumes - Internal waves and interface stability - Fine sediment transport, aggregation of particles, settling velocity of mud flocs - Sedimentation and erosion of fine sediments. For each topic an up-to-date review and recommendations for future research are given, followed by results of original studies. Since estuarine environments are the first to be threatened by urbanization and industrial exploitation this book is an important tool for students and researchers of environmental problems as well as for consultants and water authorities.
The book addresses the questions: Is Australia’s rapidly growing human population and economy environmentally sustainable for its estuaries and coasts? What is needed to enable sustainable development? To answer these questions, this book reports detailed studies of 20 iconic Australian estuaries and bays by leading Australian estuarine scientists. That knowledge is synthesised in time and space across Australia to suggest what Australian estuaries will look like in 2050 and beyond based on socio-economic decisions that are made now, and changes that are needed to ensure sustainability. The book also has a Prologue by Mr Malcolm Fraser, former Prime Minister of Australia, which bridges environmental science, population policy and sustainability.
The book describes an integrated theory that links estuary shape to tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion. The shape of an alluvial estuary is characterised by exponentially varying width and the absence of bottom slope. This topography is closely related to tidal parameters, hydraulic parameters and parameters that describe 1-dimensional mixing and salt intrusion. Starting from the fundamental equations for conservation of mass and momentum, analytical equations are derived that relate the topography to tidal parameters (tidal excursion, phase lag, tidal damping, tidal amplification), wave celerity, lateral and vertical mixing and salt intrusion. The book presents a review of the state of the art, a comprehensive theoretical background and ample case illustrations from all over the world. It provides tools with which human interference in estuary dynamics can be described and predicted, resulting from, for instance: upstream fresh water abstraction, dredging, climate change or sea-level rise. In describing the interactions between tide, topography, water quality and river discharge, it provides useful information for hydraulic engineers, morphologists, ecologists and people concerned with water quality in alluvial estuaries. Although the book can be used as a text book, it is mainly a monograph aimed at graduate students and researchers. * Provides new integrated theory for tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries * Presents a consistent set of analytical equations to compute tidal movement, tidal mixing and salt intrusion, derived from the fundamental laws of conservation of mass and momentum * Serves as a practical guide with many illustrations of applications in real estuaries
Estuaries are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on the planet--critical to the life cycles of fish, other aquatic animals, and the creatures which feed on them. Estuarine Ecology, Second Edition, covers the physical and chemical aspects of estuaries, the biology and ecology of key organisms, the flow of organic matter through estuaries, and human interactions, such as the environmental impact of fisheries on estuaries and the effects of global climate change on these important ecosystems. Authored by a team of world experts from the estuarine science community, this long-awaited, full-color edition includes new chapters covering phytoplankton, seagrasses, coastal marshes, mangroves, benthic algae, Integrated Coastal Zone Management techniques, and the effects of global climate change. It also features an entriely new section on estuarine ecosystem processes, trophic webs, ecosystem metabolism, and the interactions between estuaries and other ecosystems such as wetlands and marshes
Pollution of estuaries and coastal marine waters is of profound ecological and societal importance. These coastal environments serve as critical habitat for a multitude of organisms and are of great commercial and recreational value to humans. Designed to meet the research, monitoring, and assessment needs of scientists, administrators, planners, and managers, Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic Communities is a uniquely comprehensive reference covering pollution in coastal marine and estuarine waters. The book provides a detailed look at the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on these ecologically important regions. Case studies that reflect a broad range of pollution problems are analyzed, outlining the real-life issues and providing solutions to common problems. Despite being highly sensitive systems, estuarine and coastal marine environments have served as repositories for dredge spoils, sewage sludge, and industrial and municipal effluents for many decades. The adverse effects of these pollutants are only now being fully realized and understood. Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic Communities includes a basic introduction to the subject of pollution in estuarine and marine environments and also a detailed examination of specific marine pollutants. Both the coverage and the format - which includes abundant illustrations and tables - make this book a valuable reference for scientists, administrators, and students engaged in coastal research and planning.