Estuaries is a comprehensive introductory text emphasizing the physical processes involved in the mixing of sea and river water and the transport of fine sediments within the complex estuarine topographic context. The theoretical and mathematical formulation of these processes are treated at a fairly elementary level, and are used to develop a foundation for more extensive study. The second edition retains the classical approaches to the tidally averaged circulation and mixing conditions but broadens them to consider recent advances in the understanding of processes occurring within the tide. The scope has also been widened to include more detail on the morphology of estuaries and their development, the fluxes of suspended fine sediments, and the generation and maintenance of turbidity maximum. The book provides an excellent introduction for research students in oceanography, environmental science, geography, geology, and water and coastal engineering. It will also be useful as a reference book for those working in water quality, morphological modelling and estuarine environmental management.
This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.
In Physical Processes in Estuaries the present day knowledge of the physics of transport phenomena in estuaries and their mathematical treatment is summarized: It is divided into following parts: - Water movements in estuaries - Estuarine fronts and river plumes - Internal waves and interface stability - Fine sediment transport, aggregation of particles, settling velocity of mud flocs - Sedimentation and erosion of fine sediments. For each topic an up-to-date review and recommendations for future research are given, followed by results of original studies. Since estuarine environments are the first to be threatened by urbanization and industrial exploitation this book is an important tool for students and researchers of environmental problems as well as for consultants and water authorities.
Multi-channel estuaries, such as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Scheldt in the Netherlands, have characteristics of both the river and the sea, forming a unique environment influenced by tidal movements of the sea and freshwater flow of the river. This study addresses a number of knowledge gaps in multi-channel estuaries by developing a predictive analytical approach for salinity intrusion and discharge estimate in multi-channel estuaries. The new approach agrees well with 1-D hydrodynamic models and observations, indicating its applicability in practice. Most importantly, the study has successfully developed a new theory and a new equation to quantify tidal pumping due to ebb-flood channel residual circulation and the related salt dispersion.
The principle objective of this book is to review the biological characteristics of estuaries. The volume has been as a text for undergraduates and graduate students as well as reference for scientists conducting research on estuarine systems. And the rapid development of estuarine ecology as a field of scientific inquiry reflects a growing awareness of the immense societal importance of a coastal ecosystem. While the volume of literature on estuaries amassed, scientists deemed it necessary to synthesize the field periodically. Consiquently, several books have been produced in recent years which examine variuous aspects of the disicpline.
This volume provides researchers, students, practising engineers and managers access to knowledge, practical formulae and new hypotheses for the dynamics, mixing, sediment regimes and morphological evolution in estuaries. The objectives are to explain the underlying governing processes and synthesise these into descriptive formulae which can be used to guide the future development of any estuary. Each chapter focuses on different physical aspects of the estuarine system - identifying key research questions, outlining theoretical, modeling and observational approaches, and highlighting the essential quantitative results. This allows readers to compare and interpret different estuaries around the world, and develop monitoring and modeling strategies for short-term management issues and for longer-term problems, such as global climate change. The book is written for researchers and students in physical oceanography and estuarine engineering, and serves as a valuable reference and source of ideas for professional research, engineering and management communities concerned with estuaries.
"This book is a valuable theoretical resource for graduate students specialising in estuary processes and for researchers in related disciplines. It is also a useful guide for practitioners and consultants with its wide range of analytical equations, describing hydraulic, mixing and salt intrusion processes in estuaries."--Jacket.
Jim Green 1.1 THE THAMES ESTUARY:A PERSONAL VIEW For almost 50 years I have lived close to the Thames estuary (Figure 1.1). In the early 1950s, from our flat in Pimlico, we could walk along the embankment opposite Battersea Power Station. At low tide, the exposed mud had large red patches caused by the haemoglobin in innumerable tubificid worms. These formed the basis of a minor trade. Men with waders and sieves would collect the worms and sell them to the aquarium trade as food for fishes.The superabundance of these worms depended on the gross organic pollution of this reach of the Thames. Towards the end of the 1950s we moved to Teddington, within a few minutes' walk from the lock. Casual observation of the birds on the river indicates an increase in the piscivores over the last 20 years.Cormorants tPhalacrocorax carbo) are regularly seen, and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) are more abundant. On a good day it is possible to see up to eight herons around the weir and below the lock. Another bird that is now common place in the area is the great-crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus).The regular mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)are some times joined by tufted duck (Aythafuligula)and mandarin (Aixgalericulata).