Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most widespread human viruses, with over 80% of the general population exposed by young adulthood, as determined by antibody studies. Initial infection usu ally occurs during childhood or the teenage years. It is clear that, de pending on the age of the recipient, clinical manifestations of the primary infection can vary. It has been known for 20 years that EBV is the etiologic agent of acute infectious mononucleosis (IM) and is also closely associated with African Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and naso it is a pharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). There is increasing evidence that factor in the etiology of B-celllymphomas, which arise at a high fre quency in immunodeficient populations. EBV may also contribute to the development of autoimmune disease. Thus, this virus continues to attract world-wide attention. The major target cell for EBV infection has now been conclusively identified as the complement receptor-type 2 (CR2), the Cd/Cdg 3 3 receptor on B lymphocyte. It is apparent, however, that other cells also can become infected by EBV, such as epithelial cells in the parotid gland and other epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract. This might help account for the EBV-assodated carcinomas of the upper respiratory tract. The first in a series of international symposia on EBV -associated diseases focused primarily on Burkitt's-type lymphomas or on NPC (Kyoto 1977; Dusseldorf 1980; Kuala Lumpur 1982) and emphasized mainly the clinical elements of these diseases. Subsequent symposia (Loutraki, 1984; St.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), isolated in 1966, continues to draw worldwide attention as an important human pathogen. Its impor tance is largely related to the continuing accumulation of evidence that implicates EBV as an etiological factor for certain types of human cancer. More recent investigations on this virus have focused on the identity of the viral genes responsible for the different disease mani festations observed following viral infection. It is hoped that by thorough investigation of this virus, clues to how cancer develops from a normal cell will surface. In addition, many of the gene products are now being exploited for the development of new and more sensitive tests for the diagnosis and clinical management of individu als with EBV -associated diseases. Thus, studies on this virus continue to provide new information of importance to our understanding of the malignant process. In an effort to attract both basic and clinical scientists to the same meeting for purposes of scientific exchange and fostering a closer interaction between these individuals, a series of international symposia was initiated in 1984. The first meeting was held in Loutraki, Greece, and was attended by approximately 100 participants. The second international symposium was held in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1986, and was attended by approximately twice as many partici pants as attended the Loutraki meeting.
The use of intravenous human antibodies in the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies is well recognized. However, it is now evident that they also have therapeutic potential for a wide range of other clinical disorders. This book describes the use of human antibodies in the management of secondary (virus-induced) immunodeficiencies, neonatal and perinatal infections, and autoimmunity. Insight into their mechanism of action is also provided.
The pregnant host is at risk for any of the viral diseases her nonpregnant counterpart acquires. Additionally, pregnancy heightens our concerns regarding specific viral diseases be cause of their potential for enhanced adverse effects on both maternal and fetal well-being. All too often the obstetrician relinquishes responsibility for the management of the gravida infected by a viral pathogen, and those expert in infectious diseases are confounded by the influence of pregnancy on these conditions. A major goal of this textbook is to narrow the gap between the two aforementioned management dichotomies in the virally infected pregnant woman. Weare at the infancy of our understanding of viral infections in pregnancy. The current and anticipated advancements are due in large part to a burgeoning oftechnological achievements in the areas of immunodiagnostics, molecular biology, and pharmacotherapeutics. Our in utero diagnostic capabilities, both invasive and noninvasive, have also allowed us new opportunities to study the effects of various maternal infectious disease processes on the developing fetus. New insights have been recognized pertaining to the maternal-fetal interface, the placenta, in that this structure is now acknowledged to function as both a mechanical and an immunological barrier to vertical transmission of infection. These observations suggest that there will be an outpouring of new data in the next several years that clinicians will need to master to maintain an appropriate level of expertise in the care of their patients.
Epidemiology, Molecular Biology and Clinical Pathology
Author: Dharam Ablashi
This publication on HHV-6 is the first and so far only one where a composite picture of the virus is presented. Comprehensive accounts of HHV-6 biology, molecular virology, epidemiology and their association with diseases, including the effects of antiviral drugs, are covered in chapters contributed by leading researchers on HHV-6. The book is an excellent source of reference on HHV-6 for basic researchers, diagnostic virologists, clinicians, medical students and medical librarians since it provides the most current state-of-the-art information on HHV-6.
This reference spotlights the immunologic aspects of applying interferon-gamma to the treatment of infectious diseases - revealing the current knowledge of the biology and potential utility of interferon-gamma.;Written by more than 30 leading investigators in the field, Anti-Infective Applications of Interferon-Gamma: presents information according to specific patient populations and pathogens; focuses on only the most promising of emerging therapeutic agents; furnishes a detailed update of the pleiotropic role of interferon-gamma in host defense; and studies clinical and preclinical experiences in a broad variety of disease indications.;Containing over 900 bibliographic citations for further research, this book should be useful for infectious disease specialists, pharmacologists, immunologists, surgeons, pediatricians, parasitologists, hematologists, virologists, microbiologists, pathologists, oncologists and tropical medicine specialists.
Part 2 Reactions Associated with Neoplasia and Immune Deficient States
Author: E. Grundmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This second volume reports on the reaction patterns of lymph nodes in neoplastic and immunodeficient diseases. Based on the contents of volume 1, it presents a detailed survey of lymph node structures and their cellular components under these conditions. The patterns of nodal reactions to the development and spread of cancer have recently been investigated and discussed by several authors. Here, the immediate interactions between tumor tissue and the regional nodes have been assessed in experimental models and in human material. Using modern morphological methods such as im munohistochemistry on the light and electron microscopic level, new insights have been gained into the stepwise process of lymphogenous metastasis. Macrophages/reticulum cells were found to playa signifi cant role in this process, which is duly emphasized. Based on appro priate animal models, one chapter focuses on various subtypes of these cellular elements and their role in the two separate phases of tumor spread and the development of true metastases. The induction of fibronectin in lymph nodes is effected by tumor cells forming a special part of the extracellular matrix. The multifunctional fibronec tin molecule serves as a mediator between tumor cells and fibroblasts, furthering the formation of tumor stroma. This volume also contains a comprehensive survey of primary im munodeficiency syndromes and their nodal manifestations, reference being made to the most recent immunological knowledge.
With the 13th edition, Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology once again bridges the gap between the clinical practice of hematology and the basic foundations of science. Broken down into eight parts, this book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of: Laboratory Hematology, The Normal Hematologic System, Transfusion Medicine, Disorders of Red Cells, Hemostasis and Coagulation; Benign Disorders of Leukocytes, The Spleen and/or Immunoglobulins; Hematologic Malignancies, and Transplantation. Within these sections, there is a heavy focus on the morphological exam of the peripheral blood smear, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and other tissues. With the knowledge about gene therapy and immunotherapy expanding, new, up-to-date information about the process and application of these therapies is included. Likewise, the editors have completely revised material on stem cell transplantation in regards to both malignant and benign disorders, graft versus host disease, and the importance of long-term follow-up of transplantation survivors.
An interdisciplinary and multinational group of specialists present contributions describing the current status of vaccines against virally induced tumors and discuss the means by which they can be improved.
Containing updated and new information on advanced technology - including micro and nanoscale immunoassays - this text provides a mix of practical information coupled with a review of clincal applications and practical examples.
During the 10 years since the last edition of this volume our knowledge on malignant lymphomas, especially on extranodal lymphomas, has increased. This volume is an expanded and completely revised edition, now based on the WHO classification. The parallels to the updated Kiel classification and the REAL classification are indicated. The information is organized in organ-specific chapters, comprising the well-known nodal lymphoma entities as well as all known extranodal lymphomas and the different organ-specific clinico-pathological entities: lymphomas of the spleen, the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, etc. In addition to the morphology, the major immunohistochemical, molecular genetic, and clinical data are included in each chapter.