Strategies for Governments, Businesses, and Communities
Author: Ken Sexton
Publisher: Island Press
Category: Business & Economics
A broad-based interdisciplinary introduction to the topic of environmental decision-making which emphasizes finding solutions to real world problems. The book examines the subject from the complementary and interrelated perspectives of three major groups involved in environmental decisions: regulatory agencies, businesses and affected communities. Each chapter describes an important aspect of environmental decision making and identifies key issues and problems and recommends ways to improve the decision-making process and its outcomes.
This te×t identifies and presents tools to environmental decision-makers to help them improve the quality and clarity of their work. These tools range from software to policy approaches, and from environmental databases to focus groups.
Decision making in environmental projects is typically a complex and confusing process characterized by trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts. Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) is a methodology applied to facilitate decision making when various activities compete for limited resources. CRA has become an increasingly accepted research tool and has helped to characterize environmental profiles and priorities on the regional and national level. CRA may be considered as part of the more general but as yet quite academic field of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Considerable research in the area of MCDA has made available methods for applying scientific decision theoretical approaches to multi-criteria problems, but its applications, especially in environmental areas, are still limited. The papers show that the use of comparative risk assessment can provide the scientific basis for environmentally sound and cost-efficient policies, strategies, and solutions to our environmental challenges.
The Roles of Scientists, Engineers, and the Public
Author: Ronnie Harding
Publisher: Federation Press
Improves the capacity of engineering and science-based students to undertake their professional activities understanding not only the technological but also the social and value components associated with the environmental impacts of their professional activities.
National, European, and International Perspectives
Author: Tim Jewell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This collection of essays adopts a distinctive approach to environmental legal issues. The contributors represent a variety of specialisations, ranging from public law to international law and international relations. Some essays are written from within a UK domestic law perspective, but others adopt a broadly comparative, supra-national or international approach. The contributors do not assume that problems and solutions in 'environmental law' should be perceived as wholly distinctfrom the preoccupations of existing legal specialisms. New and proposed legal responses inevitably build on or employ established legal techniques, rather than starting completely afresh. The contributors do however, regard environmental problems as posing or at least illuminating significant challenges to received patterns of legal thought. In the light of this, the contributors therefore investigate aspects of law's influnce in environmental decision-making, and consider whether legal institutions and forms of thought can respond adequately to the challenge of environmental change.
Decision making in land management involves preferential selection among competing alternatives. Often, such choices are difficult owing to the complexity of the decision context. Because the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, developed by Thomas Saaty in the 1970s) has been successfully applied to many complex planning, resource allocation, and priority setting problems in business, energy, health, marketing, natural resources, and transportation, more applications of the AHP in natural resources and environmental sciences are appearing regularly. This realization has prompted the authors to collect some of the important works in this area and present them as a single volume for managers and scholars. Because land management contains a somewhat unique set of features not found in other AHP application areas, such as site-specific decisions, group participation and collaboration, and incomplete scientific knowledge, this text fills a void in the literature on management science and decision analysis for forest resources.
Environmental applications have long been a core use of GIS. However, the effectiveness of GIS-based methods depends on the decision-making frameworks and contexts within which they are employed. GIS for Environmental Decision-Making takes an interdisciplinary look at the capacities of GIS to integrate, analyze, and display data on which decisions must be based. It provides a broad prospective on the current state of GIS for environmental decision-making and emphasizes the importance of matters related to data, analysis, and modeling tools, as well as stakeholder participation. The book is divided into three sections, which effectively relate to three key aspects of the decision-making process as supported by GIS: data required, tools being developed, and aspects of participation. The first section stresses the ability to integrate data from different sources as a defining characteristic of GIS and illustrates the benefits that this can bring in the context of deriving land-use and other information. The second section discusses a range of issues concerning the use of GIS for suitability mapping and strategic planning exercises, through illustrative examples. The last section of the book focuses on the use of GIS-based techniques to facilitate public participation in decision-making processes. In particular, it provides an overview of developments in this area, concentrating on how GIS, modeling, and 3D landscape visualization techniques are gradually achieving closer integration. Given the complex challenges presented by global environmental change, GIS for Environmental Decision-Making provides a clear illustration of how the use of GIS can make significant contributions to trans-disciplinary initiatives to address environmental problems.
This book integrates decision-making and environmental science. For ecologists it will bridge the gap to economics. For practitioners in environmental economics and management it will be a major reference book. It probably contains the largest collection available of expressions and basic equations that are used in environmental sciences. The book is organized in disciplines, but it also includes 13 applications that draw on all subjects in the book, and where cross-references are extensively used. The applications show how a range of topics in economics, social sciences and ecology are interrelated when decisions have to be made.