Engine Emission Control Technologies

Design Modifications and Pollution Mitigation Techniques

Author: G. Amba Prasad Rao

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 845

This new volume covers the important issues related to environmental emissions from SI and CI engines as well as their formation and various pollution mitigation techniques. The book addresses aspects of improvements in engine modification, such as design modifications for enhanced performance, both with conventional fuels as well as with new and alternative fuels. It also explores some new combustion concepts that will help to pave the way for complying with new emission concepts. Alternative fuels are addressed in this volume to help mitigate harmful emissions, and alternative power sources for automobiles are also discussed briefly to cover the switch over from fueled engines to electrics, including battery-powered electric vehicles and fuel cells. The authors explain the different technologies available to date to overcome the limitations of conventional prime movers (fueled by both fossil fuels and alternative fuels). Topics examined include: • Engine modifications needed to limit harmful emissions • The use of engine after-treatment devices to contain emissions • The development of new combustion concepts • Adoption of alternative fuels in existing engines • Switching over to electrics—advantages and limitations • Specifications of highly marketed automobiles • Emission measurement methods

New Technologies for Emission Control in Marine Diesel Engines

Author: Masaaki Okubo

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 296

View: 527

New Technologies for Emission Control in Marine Diesel Engines provides a unique overview on marine diesel engines and aftertreatment technologies that is based on the authors’ extensive experience in research and development of emission control systems, especially plasma aftertreatment systems. The book covers new and updated technologies, such as combustion improvement and after treatment, SCR, the NOx reduction method, Ox scrubber, DPF, Electrostatic precipitator, Plasma PM decomposition, Plasma NOx reduction, and the Exhaust gas recirculation method. This comprehensive resource is ideal for marine engineers, engine manufacturers and consultants dealing with the development and implementation of aftertreatment systems in marine engines. Includes recent advances and future trends of marine engines Discusses new and innovative emission technologies for marine diesel engines and their regulations Covers aftertreatment technologies that are not widely applied, such as catalysts, SCR, DPF and plasmas

Pollution Control Technologies - Volume III

Author: Bhaskar Nath

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 398

View: 431

Pollution Control Technologies is a component of Encyclopedia of Environmental and Ecological Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Pollution Control Technologies focuses largely concerned with strategies for pollution reduction, and pollution prevention if at all possible, using scientific and technological methods. Focusing primarily but not exclusively on air pollution, the Theme is written in simple English, avoiding both mathematical and chemical equations as far as possible to facilitate effective and widest possible dissemination. The content of the Theme provides the essential aspects and a myriad of issues of great relevance to our world such as: Control of Particulate Matter in Gaseous Emissions; Control of Gaseous Emissions; Pollution Control through Efficient Combustion Technology; Pollution Control in Industrial Processes; Pollution Control in Transportation, which are then expanded into multiple subtopics, each as a chapter. These three volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs

Performance Simulation and Control Design for Diesel Engine NOx Emission Reduction Technologies

Author: Hai Wu

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 116

Fuel efficiency and emission reductions are the two consistent drivers for internal combustion engine development for both on-highway and off-road vehicles. Advanced combustion technologies are proposed for the improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of harmful gas production inside the cylinder in laboratory engines. Outside cylinder technologies and after-treatment are the alternatives for a production engine to meet the stringent emission standards. Advanced control technologies play important roles in the realization of new technologies. This research was aimed at investigating possible techniques and feasible methods of implementation to reduce diesel engine emissions to meet the more stringent Tier 4 standards. In this study, two technologies are studied for off-road diesel engine NOx emission reductions: stoichiometric combustion ignition (SCI) and lean NOx trap (LNT). The concept of the stoichiometric compression ignition (SCI) engine was investigated for implementation in a turbocharged diesel engine through co-simulation. At first, an integrated environment for 1D engine modeling with control function was proposed for a SCI performance evaluation and control implementation. The SCI engine has been evaluated by Constant Speed Load Acceptance tests under steady-state and transient conditions. For SCI implementations, basic controls have been designed including air-fuel ratio (AFR) control, torque limiting control and idle speed control. The proposed control strategies have been verified with 1D detail models in the integrated environments. Further, the Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) is proposed for advanced model based control design. The SCI engine subsystems are modeled using an orifice constrain model for throttle, turbine, and wastegate; filling and emptying model for intake and exhaust manifolds; rotational dynamic for engine camshaft and turbocharger shift, air-charging model and exhaust properties regressed by the data from integrated simulation at different engine operating conditions. The MVEM was implemented in Matlab/Simulink for verification. Modular and system verification was conducted for steady-state and transient state consistency with the 1D detail model. The results are promising, but the whole system needs further tuning for dynamic control design. The lean-NOx trap, as an alternative after-treatment for NOx control, has been studied for generic diesel engine emission control. Based on experimental data, an improved NOx adsorption model is proposed for integrated engine control and optimization.

NOx Emission Control Technologies in Stationary and Automotive Internal Combustion Engines

Approaches Toward NOx Free Automobiles

Author: B. Ashok

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 394

NOx Emission Control Technologies in Stationary and Automotive Internal Combustion Engines presents the fundamental theory of emission formation, particularly about the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) along with the chemical reactions and the control techniques. It provides a simplified framework for the technical literature on NOx reduction strategies in IC engines with highlighting thermodynamics, combustion science, automotive emissions, and environmental pollution control. Beginning with an explanation of exhaust gases, including the toxicity and roots of emissions for both SI and CI engines, the book discusses the formation of various emissions such as CO, SO2, HC, NOx, soot, and PM from internal combustion engines. The book also covers the various methods of NOx formation during the combustion process, engine design parameters, and the application of exhaust gas recirculation for NOx reduction. It then concludes with a summary of the current advanced NOx reduction technologies and promising future research. This book is for researchers and students in automotive, mechanical, mechatronics, and chemical engineering students working in the field of emission control techniques and want to explore the various NOx reduction techniques in IC engines. Covers advanced and recent technologies and emerging new trends in NOx reduction for emission control Highlights the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine performance parameters Discusses emission norms such as EURO VI and Bharat stage VI in reducing global air pollution due to engine emissions

Novel Internal Combustion Engine Technologies for Performance Improvement and Emission Reduction

Author: Akhilendra Pratap Singh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 263

View: 603

This monograph covers different aspects of internal combustion engines including engine performance and emissions and presents various solutions to resolve these issues. The contents provide examples of utilization of methanol as a fuel for CI engines in different modes of transportation, such as railroad, personal vehicles or heavy duty road transportation. The volume provides information about the current methanol utilization and its potential, its effect on the engine in terms of efficiency, combustion, performance, pollutants formation and prediction. The contents are also based on review of technologies present, the status of different combustion and emission control technologies and their suitability for different types of IC engines. Few novel technologies for spark ignition (SI) engines have been also included in this book, which makes this book a complete solution for both kind of engines. This book will be useful for engine researchers, energy experts and students involved in fuels, IC engines, engine instrumentation and environmental research.

Novel Internal Combustion Engine Technologies for Performance Improvement and Emission Reduction

Author: Akhilendra Pratap Singh

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 263

View: 540

This monograph covers different aspects of internal combustion engines including engine performance and emissions and presents various solutions to resolve these issues. The contents provide examples of utilization of methanol as a fuel for CI engines in different modes of transportation, such as railroad, personal vehicles or heavy duty road transportation. The volume provides information about the current methanol utilization and its potential, its effect on the engine in terms of efficiency, combustion, performance, pollutants formation and prediction. The contents are also based on review of technologies present, the status of different combustion and emission control technologies and their suitability for different types of IC engines. Few novel technologies for spark ignition (SI) engines have been also included in this book, which makes this book a complete solution for both kind of engines. This book will be useful for engine researchers, energy experts and students involved in fuels, IC engines, engine instrumentation and environmental research.

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 641

This quarterly report discusses continuing work in the testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO(subscript x) emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies, some of which have already been tested, and describes progress toward completing remaining tests to evaluate further synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed-loop control system coupled with a low cost NO(subscript x) retrofit package, additional work remains. Technologies including pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on preparing the test cell for tests using a 180 psig fuel valve. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine.

Advanced Emission Control Technologies

Author: Society of Automotive Engineers

Publisher: SAE International

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 189

View: 148

Handbook of Air Pollution from Internal Combustion Engines

Pollutant Formation and Control

Author: Eran Sher

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 663

View: 615

This handbook is an important and valuable source for engineers and researchers in the area of internal combustion engines pollution control. It provides an excellent updated review of available knowledge in this field and furnishes essential and useful information on air pollution constituents, mechanisms of formation, control technologies, effects of engine design, effects of operation conditions, and effects of fuel formulation and additives. The text is rich in explanatory diagrams, figures and tables, and includes a considerable number of references. An important resource for engineers and researchers in the area of internal combustion engines and pollution control Presents and excellent updated review of the available knowledge in this area Written by 23 experts Provides over 700 references and more than 500 explanatory diagrams, figures and tables

Automotive Emissions and Its Control

Author: Femina Patel

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 444

View: 883

The usage of automobiles has been increasing expotentially which also increasing emission of pollutants like hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter greatly. These pollutants have negative impact on air quality, the environment and human health. The stringent regulations are in force across the globe to minimize it. Automotive Emissions and Its Control provides an up-to-date reference to academicians and professionals on emissions from SI and CI engines powered vehicles and its control technologies. In this book engine design, engine emissions, impact of emitted pollutants on environment, worldwide vehicle emission standards etc. are presented. The pollutant emission control technologies like improvement in engine design, fuel pretreatment, use of alternative fuels, fuel additives, exhaust treatment or better tuning of the combustion process etc. are discussed in the detail. The recent developments on exhaust aftertreatment such as cold start emission control, NSR, SCR and diesel particulate filters etc. are covered in the book. It also discuses three way catalytic converter based on noble metal for minimizing emissions with its limitations.

Characteristics and Control of Low Temperature Combustion Engines

Employing Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol

Author: Rakesh Kumar Maurya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 544

View: 638

This book deals with novel advanced engine combustion technologies having potential of high fuel conversion efficiency along with ultralow NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. It offers insight into advanced combustion modes for efficient utilization of gasoline like fuels. Fundamentals of various advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) systems such as HCCI, PCCI, PPC and RCCI engines and their fuel quality requirements are also discussed. Detailed performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of futuristic engine technologies such as PPC and RCCI employing conventional as well as alternative fuels are analyzed and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on soot particle number emission characterization, high load limiting constraints, and fuel effects on combustion characteristics in LTC engines. For closed loop combustion control of LTC engines, sensors, actuators and control strategies are also discussed. The book should prove useful to a broad audience, including graduate students, researchers, and professionals Offers novel technologies for improved and efficient utilization of gasoline like fuels; Deals with most advanced and futuristic engine combustion modes such as PPC and RCCI; Comprehensible presentation of the performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of low temperature combustion (LTC) engines; Deals with closed loop combustion control of advanced LTC engines; State-of-the-art technology book that concisely summarizes the recent advancements in LTC technology. .

Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development

Diesel Engines

Author: H Zhao

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 748

View: 338

Volume 2 of the two-volume set Advanced direct injection combustion engine technologies and development investigates diesel DI combustion engines, which despite their commercial success are facing ever more stringent emission legislation worldwide. Direct injection diesel engines are generally more efficient and cleaner than indirect injection engines and as fuel prices continue to rise DI engines are expected to gain in popularity for automotive applications. Two exclusive sections examine light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Fuel injection systems and after treatment systems for DI diesel engines are discussed. The final section addresses exhaust emission control strategies, including combustion diagnostics and modelling, drawing on reputable diesel combustion system research and development. Investigates how HSDI and DI engines can meet ever more stringent emission legislation Examines technologies for both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engines Discusses exhaust emission control strategies, combustion diagnostics and modelling