A Review of Combustion and Gasification Technologies
Author: Peter Quaak
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Technology & Engineering
While energy is essential for development, standard fossil fuels are often in short supply in countries where it is needed most. However, alternative fuel resources abound in the form of agricultural and municipal waste or "biomass." This report reviews the state of the art of biomass combustion and gassification systems, their advantages and disadvantages. It also encourages investment in use of these technologies to enable developing countries to better exploit their biomass resources and help close the gap between their energy needs and their energy supply.
Presents a glossary of terms related to the subject of biomass energy -- the combustion of renewable organic matter for the production of fuel, energy, or steam for the generation of electricity, mechanical power, or industrial process heat. Tables include temperature conversion, physical constants applying to the individual gases encountered most frequently in fuel gases, and optimum yarding distances and slope percent of logging systems. Illustrated.
Industrial Uses of Biomass Energy demonstrates that energy-rich vegetation, biomass, is a key renewable energy resource for the future. Brazil, uniquely, has a recent history of large-scale biomass industrial uses that makes it a specially important test-bed both for the development of biomass technology and its utilisation, and for understanding how this is shaped by political and socio-economic forces. The book analyses the cause for this and the alternatives. It is argued that Brazil's experience with the development for industrial biomass use provides wider lessons and insights in the context of the international movement for sustainable economic development. This book is an interdisciplinary, multi-author work, based upon a recently completed international study by Brazilian and British experts and will prove a valuable reference to all those working in this field.
Biomass and bioenergy are essential components of the energy mix in most countries. Biomass is organic matter available on a renewable basis. Biomass includes forest and mill residues, agricultural crops and wastes, wood and wood wastes, animal wastes, livestock operation residues, aquatic plants, fast-growing trees and plants, and municipal and industrial wastes. Bioenergy is useful, renewable energy produced from organic matter. The conversion of the complex carbohydrates in organic matter to energy. Organic matter may either be used directly as a fuel or processed into liquids and gases. This book presents up-to-date research in this field.
Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemicals serves as a comprehensive introduction to the subject for the student and educator, and is useful for researchers who are interested in the technical details of biomass energy production. The coverage and discussion are multidisciplinary, reflecting the many scientific and engineering disciplines involved. The book will appeal to a broad range of energy professionals and specialists, farmers and foresters who are searching for methods of selecting, growing, and converting energy crops, entrepreneurs who are commercializing biomass energy projects, and those involved in designing solid and liquid waste disposal-energy recovery systems. Presents a graduated treatment from basic principles to the details of specific technologies Includes a critical analysis of many biomass energy research and commercialization activities Proposes several new technical approaches to improve efficiencies, net energy production, and economics Reviews failed projects, as well as successes, and methods for overcoming barriers to commercialization Written by a leader in the field with 40 years of educational, research, and commercialization experience
The developing world is looking for effective, creative ideas for upscaling clean, renewable energy. No place will gain more socially, economically, and environmentally from increased access to clean, reliable energy than poor, rural areas. Biomass energy, produced from animal and crop wastes, is a sensible renewable energy option for rural areas and it can be cost-effective at community and industry scales if guided effectively by governments. This publication explores the potential of biomass energy to close the urban–rural energy gap, raise farmer incomes, and mend the environment in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Its findings are instructive for other developing and medium-income countries exploring energy-for-all strategies. The report examines the promises and limitations of leading biomass energy technologies and resources for various distribution scales, including but not limited to household biogas digesters. The information is based on lessons learned and experiences from the Asian Development Bank–financed Efficient Utilization of Agricultural Wastes Project in the PRC, as well as findings and conclusions from a technical assistance grant to assist the government draft a national strategy for developing rural biomass energy.
The increasing importance of biomass as a renewable energy source has led to an acute need for reliable and detailed information on its assessment, consumption and supply. Responding to this need, and overcoming the lack of standardised measurement and accounting procedures, this best-selling handbook provides the reader with the skills to understand the biomass resource base, the tools to assess the resource, and explores the pros and cons of exploitation. This new edition has been fully updated and revised with new chapters on sustainability methodologies. Topics covered include assessment methods for woody and herbaceous biomass, biomass supply and consumption, land use change, remote sensing techniques, food security, sustainability and certification as well as vital policy issues. The book includes international case studies on techniques from measuring tree volume to transporting biomass, which help to illustrate step-by-step methods. Technical appendices offer a glossary of terms, energy units and other valuable resource data.
Focusing on the conversion of biomass into gas or liquid fuels the book covers physical pre-treatment technologies, thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion technologies • Details the latest biomass characterization techniques • Explains the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes • Discusses the development of integrated biorefineries, which are similar to petroleum refineries in concept, covering such topics as reactor configurations and downstream processing • Describes how to mitigate the environmental risks when using biomass as fuel • Includes many problems, small projects, sample calculations and industrial application examples
Countless pages have been written on alternative energy sources since the fall of 1973 when our dependence on fossil petroleum resources became a grim reality. One such alternative is the use of biomass for producing energy and liquid and gaseous fuels. The term "biomass" generally refers to renewable organic matter generated by plants through photosynthesis. Thus trees, agri cultural crops, and aquatic plants are prime sources of biomass. Furthermore, as these sources of biomass are harvested and processed into commercial prod ucts, residues and wastes are generated. These, together with municipal solid wastes, not only add to the total organic raw material base that can be utilized for energy purposes but they also need to be removed for environmental reasons. Biomass has been used since antiquity for energy and material needs. In is still one of the most sought-after energy sources in most of the fact, firewood world. Furthermore, wood was still a dominant energy source in the U. S. only a hundred years ago (equal with coal). Currently, biomass contributes about 15 2 quadrillion Btu (l quad = 10 Btu) of energy to our total energy consump tion of about 78 quad. Two quad may not seem large when compared to the contribution made by petroleum (38 quad) or natural gas (20 quad), but bio mass is nearly comparable to nuclear energy (2. 7 quad).
Technology, Advances, Life Cycle Assessment, and Economics
Author: R. Praveen Kumar
Publisher: Academic Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The utilization of various types of biomass residue to produce products such as biofuels and biochemicals means biorefinery technology using biomass residues may become a one-stop solution to the increasing need for sustainable, non-fossil sources of energy and chemicals. Refining Biomass Residues for Sustainable Energy and Bioproducts: Technology, Advances, Life Cycle Assessment and Economics focuses on the various biorefineries currently available and discusses their uses, challenges, and future developments. This book introduces the concept of integrated biorefinery systems, as well as their operation and feedstock sourcing. It explores the specificities, current developments, and potential end products of various types of residue, from industrial and municipal to agricultural and marine, as well as residue from food industries. Sustainability issues are discussed at length, including life cycle assessment, economics, and cost analysis of different biorefinery models. In addition, a number of global case studies examine successful experiences in different regions. This book is an ideal resource for researchers and practitioners in the field of bioenergy and waste management who are looking to learn about technologies involved in residue biorefinery systems, how to reduce their environmental impacts, and how to ensure their commercial viability. Explores a range of different biorefinery categories, such as industrial, agricultural, and marine biomass residues Includes a Life Cycle Assessment of biorefinery models, in addition to costs and market analysis. Features case studies from around the world and is written by an international team of authors
An Exergy Approach to Biofuels, Power, and Biorefineries
Author: Krzysztof J. Ptasinski
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Details energy and exergy efficiencies of all major aspects of bioenergy systems Covers all major bioenergy processes starting from photosynthesis and cultivation of biomass feedstocks and ending with final bioenergy products, like power, biofuels, and chemicals Each chapter includes historical developments, chemistry, major technologies, applications as well as energy, environmental and economic aspects in order to serve as an introduction to biomass and bioenergy A separate chapter introduces a beginner in easy accessible way to exergy analysis and the similarities and differences between energy and exergy efficiencies are underlined Includes case studies and illustrative examples of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels production, power and heat generation (thermal plants, fuel cells, boilers), and biorefineries Traditional fossil fuels-based technologies are also described in order to compare with the corresponding bioenergy systems
Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy, 2nd Edition presents a complete overview of the bioenergy value chain, from feedstock to end products. It examines current and emerging feedstocks and advanced processes and technologies enabling the development of all possible alternative energy sources. Divided into seven parts, bioenergy gives thorough consideration to topics such as feedstocks, biomass production and utilization, life-cycle analysis, energy return on invested, integrated sustainability assessments, conversions technologies, biofuels economics, business, and policy. In addition, contributions from leading industry professionals and academics, augmented by related service-learning case studies and quizzes, provide readers with a comprehensive resource that connect theory to real-world implementation. Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy, 2nd Edition provides engineers, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, and business professionals in the bioenergy field with valuable, practical information that can be applied to implementing renewable energy projects, choosing among competing feedstocks, technologies, and products. It also serves as a basic resource for civic leaders, economic development professionals, farmers, investors, fleet managers, and reporters interested in an organized introduction to the language, feedstocks, technologies, and products in the biobased renewable energy world. • Includes current and renewed subject matter, project case studies from real world, and topic-specific sections on the impacts of biomass use for energy production from all sorts of biomass feedstocks including organic waste of all kinds. • Provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical information of all possible bioenergy resources: solid (wood energy, grass energy, waste, and other biomass), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, ethanol, waste to oils, etc.), and gaseous/electric (biogas, syngas, biopower, RNG), and cutting-edge topics such as advanced fuels. • Integrates current state of art coverage on feedstocks, cost-effective conversion processes, biofuels economic analysis, environmental policy, and triple bottom line. • Features quizzes for each section derived from the implementation of actual hands-on biofuel projects as part of service learning.