The contributors in this volume address the fundamental relationship between the state and its citizens, and among the people themselves. Discussion centers on a recent decision by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Kelo v. City of New London. This case involved the use of eminent domain power to acquire private property for purposes of transferring it by the State to another private party that would make "better" economic use of the land. This type of state action has been identified as an "economic development taking". In the Kelo case, the Court held that the action was legal within provisions of the US Constitution but the opinion was contentious among some of the Justices and has been met with significant negative outcry from the public. The Kelo case and the public debate arising in its aftermath give cause to assess the legal landscape related to the ability of government to fairly balance the tension between private property and the public interest. The tension and the need to successfully strike a balance are not unique to any one country or any one political system. From the United States to the United Kingdom, to the People's Republic of China, property and its legal regulation are of prime importance to matters of economic development and civic institution building. The Kelo decision, therefore, explores a rich set of legal principles with broad applicability.
This thesis provides a new approach to the Ethiopian Land Law debate. The basic argument made in this thesis is that even if the Ethiopian Constitution provides and guarantees common ownership of land (together with the state) to the people, this right has not been fully realized whether in terms of land accessibility, enjoyability, and payment of fair compensation in the event of expropriation. Expropriation is an inherent power of the state to acquire land for public purpose activities. It is an important development tool in a country such as Ethiopia where expropriation remains the only method to acquire land. Furthermore, the two preconditions of payment of fair compensation and existence of public purpose justifications are not strictly followed in Ethiopia. The state remains the sole beneficiary of the process by capturing the full profit of land value, while paying inadequate compensation to those who cede their land by expropriation. Secondly, the broader public purpose power of the state in expropriating the land for unlimited activities puts the property owners under imminent risk of expropriation.
A Comparative Perspective on Land Use Regulations and Compensation Rights
Author: Rachelle Alterman
Publisher: American Bar Association
This book is the first large-scale effort devoted to this controversial issue, providing a vast platform of comparative knowledge on direct, indirect, categorical, and partial takings. Written for legal professionals, academics, urban and regional planners, real estate developers, and civil-society groups, the book analyzes thirteen advanced economy countries representing a variety of legal regimes, institutional structures, cultures, geographic sizes, and population densities.
Transnational Litigation in Comparative Perspective: Theory and Application is the only casebook that examines the principal issues in transnational litigation from a comparative perspective. Each chapter focuses on a particular core problem that all legal systems must address. The first half of each chapter is devoted to exploring the theoretical context of the issue, thereby enabling students to appreciate the complexity of the problem and to see how achieving a resolution requires balancing competing interests. The second part of each chapter then focuses on how different systems deal with these challenges. Topics covered include protective measures, personal jurisdiction, forum non conveniens, forum selection clauses, state immunity, state doctrine, service of process, gathering evidence abroad, choice of law, and recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. Distinctive Features *Uses a comparative approach that better prepares future lawyers for international litigation that may be initiated in countries other than the U.S. *Offers a hypothetical at the beginning of each chapter to introduce the fundamental issue; the hypotheticals raise questions that are diagnostic rather than prescriptive, leading to many "right" answers *Accommodates different types of courses--professors who employ a less theoretical approach can use the hypotheticals to ground class discussions *Considers issues unique to arbitration as they arise in connection with the various topics studied
"Excessive concentration of land ownership, as is feared by many transition governments, has not been a feature of land markets where they have been allowed to function relatively freely and where land has been allocated in kind to households and individuals."The World Bank has long been active in the Europe and Central Asia region in monitoring and evaluating land reform developments and supporting the development of land markets. Bank efforts to date have made a significant impact in our client countries, and studies produced by the Bank have been used as impartial references on this subject by both international organizations and the countries themselves. This report was developed as a result of these efforts. It focuses on: The principal issues faced by the transition economies of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union The potential approaches for resolving specific problem issues.