The Archaeology, Ecology, and Evolution of Infectious Disease
Author: Charles L. Greenblatt
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Emerging infectious diseases such as AIDS and Ebola have frightening implications for our future survival. Many ancient diseases with a long history of afflicting mankind such as Tuberculosis and Malaria are also re-emerging. New techniques allow us to detect ancient pathogen DNA and other biomarkers, which may help us develop strategies to combat modern emerging diseases. This book is the first to bring together paleopathologists and infectious disease practitioners, with the hope being that a better understanding of past diseases can help us combat the threat of future pathogens.
This issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, edited by Drs. Nahed Ismail, A. William Pasculle, and James Snyder, will cover a wide variety of Emerging Pathogens. Topics covered in this issue include, but are not limited to West Nile Virus; Zika Virus; Ebola and Marburg Heamorrhagic Fever; Rift Valley Fever; Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriacae; Closteridium Difficuile; and Chikungunya, among others.
Developments such as the increasing globalization of the food industry, constant innovations in technologies and products, and changes in the susceptibility of populations to disease have all highlighted the problem of emerging pathogens, either newly discovered through more sensitive analytical methods, linked for the first time to disease in humans, or newly associated with a particular food. Designed for microbiologists and quality assurance professionals and for government and academic food safety scientists, this timely reference discusses ways of identifying emerging pathogens and includes chapters on individual pathogens, their epidemiology, methods of detection, and means of control.
Focusing on Adenovirus 40, feline calicivirus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Legionella pneumophila, and microspordida, this study evaluates the efficacy of chemical and photochemical disinfectants in inactivating selected emerging waterborne pathogens. It assesses the microbial inactivation kinetics,
Advances in Surveillance, Detection and Identification
Author: Kevin P. O'Connell
It is a truism among biologists that an organism’s phenotype is the product of both its genotype and its environment. An organism’s genotype contains the total informational potential of the individual, while its environment shapes the expression of the ge- type, influences the rate of mutation and occurrence of modifications, and ultimately determines the likelihood that the genotype (or fractions thereof) will survive into the next generation. In the relationship between host and pathogen, therefore, each forms a part of the environment of the other, mutually influencing the biology of both partners on scales ranging from the life history of individuals to the fate of populations or entire species. Molecular biologists working on problems in pathogenesis generally think of the host organism as the pathogen’s environment and perhaps occasionally consider the pathogen as part of the host’s environment. However, because “environment” can be defined at many scales, so, too, can phenotypes: if a pathogen, as a species, is c- sidered to exist in a host, as a species, then among its phenotypes is the nature of the pandemic disease it can cause within the host community. The contributors to the proceedings of this NATO Advanced Research Workshop have treated the interplay of environment and genotype in the host–pathogen relationship and its relationship to the problem of emerging infectious disease at both the macroscopic and microscopic/ molecular levels along this continuum of scale (with some human history thrown in at times for good measure).
"This new work updates the highly regarded first edition...and is equally excellent. It offers a wealth of timely information about a variety of emerging and reemerging infections...This is an excellent reference for anyone interested in emerging infections, and will be a valuable resource for health science students, especially those in nursing and public health....Highly recommended. Upper-level undergraduates through professionals/practitioners."--Choice Emerging, re-emerging, and antibiotic-resistant infectious diseases continue to increase at an alarming rate throughout the world. Written for a wide range of health professionals, particularly nurses, this revised edition provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of these diseases: their epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention, and treatment. With contributions by a multidisciplinary team of nurses, physicians, and infectious disease specialists, the book includes material on the most recent and important new emerging infectious diseases: Avian influenza and SARS Issues of demographics and microbial resistance Special topics, including bioterrorism Behavioral and cultural factors Infectious etiologies of chronic diseases Travel and recreational exposure Each chapter is amply illustrated with clinical case examples to demonstrate the pitfalls in differential diagnosis and elucidate proper management and treatment. Valuable appendices provide critical reference information for each of the bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases.
More than 30 newly emerged microorganisms and related diseases have been discovered in the past 20 years. Since these infections are so new, even infectious diseases experts and clinical microbiologists need more information. This book covers recently emerged infectious diseases based on real cases and provides comprehensive information including different aspects of the infections. Written in a ‘teaching’ style, this book is of interest to every medical specialist and student. Includes more than 35 emerging infection cases based on the following criteria: newly emerged or re-emerged recently acquired significance in clinical practice recently radically changed in case management Offers a balanced synthesis of basic and clinical sciences for each individual case, presenting clinical courses of the cases in parallel with the pathogenesis and detailed microbiological information for each infection Describes the prevalence and incidence of the global issues and current therapeutic approaches Presents the measures for infection control
This volume examines the most important socio-cultural, political, economic, and policy issues related to emerging infectious diseases in Africa. The volume covers the work of the Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium (GET); it looks at the challenges of science education and communication in Africa, the global health and governance of pandemics and epidemics, and more. It looks beyond such threats as Ebola, SARS, and Zika to consider the ways communities have sought to contain these and other deadly pathogens. The chapters provide a better understanding of a global health problem from an African perspective, which help clarify to readers why some responses have worked while others have not. Overall, the volume captures the state of the art, science, preparedness, and evolution of a topic important to the health of Africa and the world. It has a broad appeal across disciplines, from medical science and biomedical research, through research ethics, regulation and governance, science and health communication, social sciences, and is also of interest to general readers.
Consensus on Needed Laboratory Capacity Could Strengthen Surveillance
Author: Helene Toiv
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Outbreaks over the last decade illustrate that emerging infectious diseases (EID) remain a serious public health threat. The resurgence of some EID is particularly alarming because previously effective forms of control are breaking down. This report examines America's surveillance network & focuses on the contribution of laboratories, since new technology gives them an increasingly important role in identifying pathogens & the sources of outbreaks. The report: determines the extent to which states conduct public health surveillance & laboratory testing of selected EID; & identifies the problems state public health officials face in gathering laboratory-related data in the surveillance of EID.
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
One of the greatest public health achievements during the last century was the reduction of infectious diseases due to public sanitation measures, vaccines and antibiotics. However, in recent years, several new infectious diseases have been identified, and since the appearance of the first penicillin-resistant bacteria, 'old diseases' have reemerged. Volume 8 of Contributions to Microbiology provides an overview of a great variety of bacterial pathogens representative of those groups and discusses the underlying reasons for disease emergence. The various chapters clearly illustrate how changes in society, technology and the environment result in the appearance or spread of bacterial pathogens. Not only bacterial human pathogens, but also bacterial plant pathogens are an issue and serve as an example of how bacteria can adapt very specifically to a particular host environment. As a consequence of this adaptability, the available antimicrobial drugs have become less effective against many infectious agents; the reasons for this are thoroughly discussed in the book. There is an urgent need for the development of new antibiotics. The volume therefore concludes with a chapter on modern approaches which allow a rational design of a new generation of antimicrobial drugs less likely to become ineffective or cause broad-spectrum drug resistance.
National Surveillance System Could be Strengthened : Statement of Bernice Steinhardt, Director, Health Services Quality and Public Health Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division, Before the Subcommittee on Public Health, Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, U.S. Senate
Emerging protozoan pathogens, once thought to be an obscure menace of society, have become a major threat to human health. The last two decades have seen major advances in the understanding of these increasingly important pathogens. Emerging Protozoan Pathogens provides a comprehensive account of up-to-date information on the present status of research in this discipline. Written by experts in their respective subject areas, this book provides a valuable resource for microbiologists and molecular and cell biologists at advanced undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as health professionals and researchers who are interested in these pathogens. The material covered, including biology, genomics, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatments, makes it an ideal platform on which to base further research projects.
One Health is an emerging concept that aims to bring together human, animal, and environmental health. Achieving harmonized approaches for disease detection and prevention is difficult because traditional boundaries of medical and veterinary practice must be crossed. In the 19th and early 20th centuries this was not the case—then researchers like Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch and physicians like William Osler and Rudolph Virchow crossed the boundaries between animal and human health. More recently Calvin Schwabe revised the concept of One Medicine. This was critical for the advancement of the field of epidemiology, especially as applied to zoonotic diseases. The future of One Health is at a crossroads with a need to more clearly define its boundaries and demonstrate its benefits. Interestingly the greatest acceptance of One Health is seen in the developing world where it is having significant impacts on control of infectious diseases.
New emerging diseases, new diagnostic modalities for resource-poor settings, new vaccine schedules ... all significant, recent developments in the fast-changing field of tropical medicine. Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10th Edition, keeps you up to date with everything from infectious diseases and environmental issues through poisoning and toxicology, animal injuries, and nutritional and micronutrient deficiencies that result from traveling to tropical or subtropical regions. This comprehensive resource provides authoritative clinical guidance, useful statistics, and chapters covering organs, skills, and services, as well as traditional pathogen-based content. You’ll get a full understanding of how to recognize and treat these unique health issues, no matter how widespread or difficult to control. Includes important updates on malaria, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and HIV, as well as coverage of Ebola, Zika virus, Chikungunya, and other emerging pathogens. Provides new vaccine schedules and information on implementation. Features five all-new chapters: Neglected Tropical Diseases: Public Health Control Programs and Mass Drug Administration; Health System and Health Care Delivery; Zika; Medical Entomology; and Vector Control – as well as 250 new images throughout. Presents the common characteristics and methods of transmission for each tropical disease, as well as the applicable diagnosis, treatment, control, and disease prevention techniques. Contains skills-based chapters such as dentistry, neonatal pediatrics and ICMI, and surgery in the tropics, and service-based chapters such as transfusion in resource-poor settings, microbiology, and imaging. Discusses maladies such as delusional parasitosis that are often seen in returning travelers, including those making international adoptions, transplant patients, medical tourists, and more.
In these papers drawn from the January 2003 workshop, contributors describe methods of building integrated systems to combat epidemics and bio-terrorism. Their general topics include developing epidemiology with laboratory support as a biological attack identification tool, using national approaches to biodefense, and conducting risk assessment, cr.
Hospitals in the US and Canada are ill-prepared for the threat of emerging infectious diseases, especially in the area of protecting healthcare workers, nurses, doctors, and first responders from transmissions. Current protocols from guideline agencies and health organizations and health departments that include state pandemic flu plans do not follow scientific evidence in many of their recommendations. Economics and 'ease of use' are trumping good science in the decision making process. For example, protocols do not demand the most stringent precautions that would protect for healthcare workers from unknown factors of transmission in the case of rapidly emerging diseases. Respiratory protection, negative pressure isolation rooms, training of healthcare workers, personal protective equipment, ventilation designs, triage of surge patients, funding issues are all areas of concern that remain controversial in current occupational health protection models. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Threat to Occupational Health in the US and Canada offers a critical review of existing plans and infrastructures for emerging diseases and the response capabilities of healthcare delivery systems to protect the occupational health and offers many solutions. The authors perform failure analysis that cannot be found in other texts, and offer positive solutions, strategies, and tactics for strengthening the hospital and the public health response to potentially catastrophic health crises. This book contains invaluable information for managers, professionals, and policy makers in infectious disease organizations, public health organizations, as well as occupational health organizations.