Ecotoxicity and Human Health

A Biological Approach to Environmental Remediation

Author: Arthur D. Bloom

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 108

Ecotoxicity and Human Health emphasizes the relationships between toxicity, ecological systems, and human health. It focuses on the extent and nature of hazardous waste sites and how their effects may be studied in humans and other systems, using in vitro models, biomarkers of cellular and molecular damage, and animal models. It also includes considerable information on bioremediation, legal and regulatory issues, public perceptions and societal responses, quantitative modeling and analysis, and international directives. One of the unique features of Ecotoxicity and Human Health is its coverage of the legislative actions that have occurred over the past two decades and which have most affected the issue of hazardous waste. The book discusses the Superfund Statute, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Ocean Dumping Act of 1972, the Rio Conference, United Nations Declarations, EC Regulations and Directives, and selected state legislation.

Calculated Risks

The Toxicity and Human Health Risks of Chemicals in our Environment

Author: Joseph V. Rodricks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 175

Safeguarding economic prosperity, whilst protecting human health and the environment, is at the forefront of scientific and public interest. This book provides a practical and balanced view on toxicology, control, risk assessment and risk management, addressing the interplay between science and public health policy. This revised edition provides a detailed analysis on chemical and by-product exposure, how they enter the body and the suitability of imposed safety limits. Chapters on dose, with particular emphasis on children and vulnerable subpopulations, reproductive and developmental toxicants and toxicity testing are included. With updated and comprehensive coverage of international developments of risk management and safety, this will have broad appeal to researchers and professionals involved in chemical safety and regulation as well as the general reader interested in environmental pollution and public health.

Ecotoxicity and Human Health

A Biological Approach to Environmental Remediation

Author: Frederick J. De Serres

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Bioremediation

Page: 325

View: 110

Nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity, Safety, and Public Perception

Author: Mahendra Rai

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 370

View: 761

The environment is prone to suffer pollution and toxic insult from generations of nanomaterials as well from accidental releases during production, transportation, and disposal operations. The NMs could interact with and cause adverse biological effects at cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels. Assessing potential environmental/ecological risks requires quality information on transport and fate of nanoparticles in the environment, exposures and vulnerabilities of organisms to the nanomaterials and standard methods for assessing toxicity for aquatic or terrestrial organisms and human health. The systematic risk characterization and evaluation of the safety of nanomaterials require a multidisciplinary approach and convergence of knowledge and efforts from researchers and experts from toxicology, biotechnology, materials science, chemistry, physics, engineering, and other branches of life sciences. Although studies are beginning to appear in the literature addressing the toxicity of various nanomaterials and their potential for exposure, at this stage definitive statements regarding the impacts of nanomaterials on human health and the environment remain sketchy requiring an increased level of precautions with regard to nanomaterials, as has happened with other emerging contaminants and technologies (e.g., biotechnology). The need for an increased level of understanding the perception of risk and of benefits will vary and is likely to influence public, regulatory, and non-governmental activities regarding risk and benefit evaluations. Systematic identification and assessment of the risks posed by any new technology are essential. A prudent, integrated, and holistic approach is required to develop best practices based on the scientific understanding about what we know and what we don’t know but need to know. Nanomaterials addresses key issues of ecotoxicological actions and effects of nanomaterials on life and environment, their threats, vulnerability, risks, and public perception. The readers learn to read bad news objectively and think about and search for ecological ‘green’ solutions to current environmental and ecological problems with blue, grey, brown, and red shades for building a sustainable ecosystem. It shows how this molecular terrain is a common ground for interdisciplinary research and education that will be an essential component of science, engineering and technology in the future. The book is divided into three sections. Section I includes general topics related to ecotoxicity of nanomaterials to microbes, plants, human and environment. Section 2 incorporates risks generated by the use of nanomaterials. Section 3 discusss safety issues and the public.

Interconnections Between Human and Ecosystem Health

Author: R.T. Di Giulio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 740

Ecotoxicology is a relatively new scientific discipline. Indeed, it might be argued that it is only during the last 5-10 years that it has come to merit being regarded as a true science, rather than a collection of procedures for protecting the environment through management and monitoring of pollutant discharges into the environment. The term 'ecotoxicology' was first coined in the late sixties by Prof. Truhaut, a toxicologist who had the vision to recognize the importance of investigating the fate and effects of chemicals in ecosystems. At that time, ecotoxicology was considered a sub-discipline of medical toxicology. Subsequently, several attempts have been made to portray ecotoxicology in a more realistic light. Notably, both Moriarty (1988) and F. Ramade (1987) emphasized in their books the broad basis of ecotoxicology, encompassing chemical and radiation effects on all components of ecosystems. In doing so, they and others have shifted concern from direct chemical toxicity to humans, to the far more subtle effects that pollutant chemicals exert on natural biota. Such effects potentially threaten the existence of all life on earth. Although I have identified the sixties as the era when ecotoxicology was first conceived as a coherent subject area, it is important to acknowledge that studies that would now be regarded as ecotoxicological are much older.

A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology

Human Disorders and Ecotoxicology

Author: J.P.F. D'Mello

Publisher: CABI

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 673

View: 909

Written by an international team of authors from a range of educational, medical and research establishments, this book is an essential reference for advanced students and researchers in the areas of environmental sciences, ecology, agriculture, environmental health and medicine, in addition to industry and government personnel responsible for environmental regulations and directives. A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology focuses on two key aspects: human disorders and ecotoxicology as affected by major toxins originating from biological sources and pollutants, as well as radiation generated spontaneously or as a result of anthropogenic activity. A diverse array of these potentially harmful agents regularly appear in the atmosphere, soil, water and food, compromising both human health and biodiversity in natural and managed ecosystems.

Minerals Latu Sensu and Human Health

Benefits, Toxicity and Pathologies

Author: Celso Barros Gomes

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Biomedical materials

Page: 668

View: 551

This volume provides a comprehensive academic review of both positive and negative effects of minerals on human health and quality of life. The book adopts the concept of mineral latu sensu (mineral l.s.), which encompasses a broad spectrum of natural, inorganic, solid, and crystalline, of natural and inorganic chemical elements (metals and metalloids), of modified natural minerals, of biominerals, and of syntetic minerals, all products that branch across the disciplines of earth, soil, environmental, materials, nutrition, and health sciences. Using this broad framework, the authors are able to provide a multidisciplinary assessment on many types of minerals which can be essential, beneficial and hazardous to human health, covering applications in medical geology, medical hydrology or balneotherapy, pharmacology, chemistry, nutrition, and biophysics. The book performs historical analyses of the uses of minerals for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes to better understand current trends and developments in mineral research and human health. The book will be of interest to students, public health officials, environmental agencies and researchers from various disciplines, as well as scientific societies and organizations focusing on medical geology, health resort medicine (crenotherapy, hydrotherapy and climatotherapy), and on pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biomedical applications.

Cadmium Toxicity

New Aspects in Human Disease, Rice Contamination, and Cytotoxicity

Author: Seiichiro Himeno

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 190

View: 422

This volume focuses on cadmium (Cd) exposure, its effects on human health, the mechanism of Cd accumulation and the development of mitigation technologies. Further, it discusses clinical, epidemiological, agricultural, toxicological, and biochemical aspects of Cd pollution and presents recent biochemical studies on molecular mechanisms of Cd cytotoxicity and cellular transport as well as the mechanism of Cd-induced disturbances in phosphorus (P) metabolism. It also provides insights into the pathophysiology of itai-itai disease, a serious condition caused by Cd pollution. Cadmium -New Aspects in Human Disease, Rice Contamination, and Cytotoxicity- is a valuable resource for scientists involved in heavy metal toxicology, botanical sciences, and regulatory sciences. Addressing the features of Cd pollution in the past and in the present, as well as future perspectives, this is a must-have book for students, researchers and practitioners interested in global and local metal pollution.

Lead and Public Health

Science, Risk and Regulation

Author: Paul Mushak

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 980

View: 770

The book presents a detailed assessment of the health science of lead and the human health risk assessment models for lead's human health impacts, followed by an account of various regulatory efforts in the United States and elsewhere to eliminate or reduce human toxic exposures to lead. The science of lead as presented here covers releases of lead into the environment, lead's movement through the environment to reach humans who are then exposed, and the spectrum of toxic effects, particularly low-level toxic effects, on the developing central nervous system of the very young child. The section on human health risk assessment deals with quantifying not only the dose-response relationships that underlie toxic responses to lead in sensitive populations but also with the likelihood of toxic responses vis-à-vis environmental lead at some level of exposure. This section includes a treatment of computer models of lead exposure, particularly those that use lead in whole blood as a key measure. Various models convert lead intake via various body compartments into measures of body lead burden. Such measures are then directly related to severity of injury. The final section of the book deals with past and present regulatory efforts to control lead releases into the human environment. Current control efforts present a mixed picture. The most problematic issue is the continued presence of lead paint in older housing and lead in soils of urban and mining industry communities. Comprehensive assessment of the three major facets of the public health problem of lead: the voluminous science, the risk assessment approaches, and approaches to controlling lead as a public health problem. Integration of the above three elements to provide a coherent whole Provides a single source of information that will be extremely valuable to all professionals working in areas impacted by this toxic substance

Calculated Risks

Understanding the Toxicity of Chemicals in our Environment

Author: Joseph V. Rodricks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 672

Public concern regarding environmental pollution and chemicals present in foods, consumer products, and the work place are at an all time high. While there is widespread awareness, confusion still reigns, aggravated by conflicting reports concerning carcinogens in food and drinking water, or about chemicals present in medicines and household products that may cause birth defects. The central purpose of this book is to describe how scientists come to understand the toxic properties of such chemicals and the health risks they may pose. Rather than attempting to expose governmental and corporate ignorance, negligence or corruption, this book explores the underlying scientific issues.