This book provides an account of economic development in Palanpur, a village in rural North India, based on five detailed surveys of the village over the period 1957 to 1993. These five decades have seen economic well-being rise in some important respects, but stagnation and even decline inother areas. The analysis presented here focuses on the reasons behind this uneven progress. The authors tie in the background issues of the evolution of poverty and inequality and mobility over time with causal factors such as technological progress, demographic and sectoral changes, the operationof markets, and the role of public action. The richness and unique nature of the qualitative and quantitative data collected and presented by Lanjouw and Stern yields an analysis which illuminates questions of direct importance to researchers in a wide variety of disciplines.
This is an account of economic development in Palanpur, a village in rural north India, based on surveys of the village over the period 1957 to 1993. The analysis focuses on the reasons behind its uneven progress, tying in background issues.
Private Firms and Economic Mobility in Developing Countries
Author: Gary S. Fields
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Business & Economics
How private firms contribute to economic mobility and poverty reduction and what governments can do to enhance their contributions is the theme of this book. The positive role (often underemphasized) the private sector plays in economic development is looked at. Also the labour market and how various mechanisms in the economy interact to affect conditions for people as workers and as consumers. The links among the business environment, private sector development, economic growth, poverty reduction and economic mobility are also examined.
Development economics is about understanding how and why lives change. How Lives Change: Palanpur, India, and Development Economics studies a single village in a crucially important country to illuminate the drivers of these changes, why some people do better or worse than others, and what influences mobility and inequality. How Lives Change draws on seven decades of detailed data collection by a team of dedicated development economists to describe the evolution of Palanpur's economy, its society, and its politics. The emerging story of integration of the village economy with the outside world is placed against the backdrop of a rapidly transforming India and, in turn, helps to understand the transformation. It puts development economics into practice to assess its performance and potential in a unique and powerful way to show how the development of one village since India's independence can be set in the context of the entire country's story. How Lives Change sets out the role of, and scope for, public policy in shaping the lives of individuals. It describes how changes in Palanpur's economy since the late 1950s were initially driven by the advance of agriculture through land reforms, the expansion of irrigation and the introduction of "green revolution" technologies. Since the mid-1980s, newly emerging off-farm opportunities in nearby towns and outside agriculture became the key driver of growth and change, profoundly influencing poverty, income mobility, and inequality in Palanpur. Village institutions are shown to have evolved in subtle but clear ways over time, both shaping and being shaped by economic change. Individual entrepreneurship and initiative is found to play a critical role in driving and responding to the forces of change; and yet, against a backdrop of real economic growth and structural transformation, this book shows that human development outcomes have shown only weak progress and remain stubbornly resistant to change.
Corruption, a major problem in the present, global world, is a very complex phenomenon. It has economic, political and ethical aspects and is simultaneously a global and a local issue. This anthropological study shows how actors in Indian society are entangled in hierarchical relations of social, economic and political inequality that breed corruption, yet also how resistance against corruption takes place in local context. By exposing the complexity of corruption and also by questioning apparently simple remedies, this rich study certainly contributes to "making sense" of corruption in India.
Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics
Author: William R. Easterly
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Business & Economics
Why economists' attempts to help poorer countries improve their economic well-being have failed. Since the end of World War II, economists have tried to figure out how poor countries in the tropics could attain standards of living approaching those of countries in Europe and North America. Attempted remedies have included providing foreign aid, investing in machines, fostering education, controlling population growth, and making aid loans as well as forgiving those loans on condition of reforms. None of these solutions has delivered as promised. The problem is not the failure of economics, William Easterly argues, but the failure to apply economic principles to practical policy work. In this book Easterly shows how these solutions all violate the basic principle of economics, that people—private individuals and businesses, government officials, even aid donors—respond to incentives. Easterly first discusses the importance of growth. He then analyzes the development solutions that have failed. Finally, he suggests alternative approaches to the problem. Written in an accessible, at times irreverent, style, Easterly's book combines modern growth theory with anecdotes from his fieldwork for the World Bank.
At the start of each decade the World Development Report focuses on poverty reduction. The World Development Report, now in its twenty-third edition, proposes an empowerment-security-opportunity framework of action to reduce poverty in the first decades of the twenty-first century. It views poverty as a multidimensional phenonmenon arising out of complex interactions between assets, markets, and institutions. This Report shows how the experience of poverty reduction in the last fifteen years has been remarkably diverse and how this experience has provided useful lessons as well as warnings against simplistic universal policies and interventions. It shows how current global trends present extraordinary opportunities for poverty reduction but also cause extraordinary risks, including growing inequality, marginalization, and social explosions. The World Development Report 2000/2001 explores the challenge of managing these risks in order to make the most of the opportunities for poverty reduction.
Biotechnology and Capital Markets Working for the Poor
Author: Ralph D Christy
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Business & Economics
This book is a state-of-the-art discussion of what has succeeded (and failed) in the design and implementation of projects and institutions to assist the poor in developing country economies. In Africa especially, far too many people are still living under conditions of extreme poverty. The goal of the book is twofold: (1) to identify and assess the key processes through which markets affect the livelihoods of the rural poor; and (2) to propose micro- and macro-level policies and innovations to address the problems of inclusion that arise. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and professionals in the field, this volume is timely to all those involved in designing innovative institutions that transfer capital and technologies to low-income countries facing the challenges of poverty alleviation and economic development. Contents:How Can Financial Markets and Biotechnology Help the Rural Poor? (Ralph D Christy, Mark Wenner, Emelly Mutambatsere and Willene Johnson)Financial Markets and the Poor:Financial Development and Growth: What Role Can Foreign Capital Play? (Eswar Prasad, Ayhan Kose, Kenneth Rogoff and Shang-Jin Wei)The Securitization of Microloans (Vicki L Bogan)A Vision for Scaling Microfinance: More than Dollars and Smarts (Deborah Burand, Esq.)Innovations in Index Insurance for the Poor in Low-Income Countries (Jerry Skees)Biotechnology and the Poor:Overcoming Poverty Through Improved Agricultural Technology (Robert W Herdt)Agricultural Biotechnology in Latin America: Economic Benefits, Regional Capacity, and Policy Options (Greg Traxler)Biotechnology, Agriculture, and Food Security in Southern Africa: Strategic Policy Challenges and Opportunities (Steven Were Omamo and Klaus von Grebmer)Developing Country Options under TRIPS: Choices to Maximize Biotech Transfer (William Lesser and Deepthi Kolady)Foreign Direct Investment:What Matters to African Firms? The Relevance of Perceptions Data (Alan Gelb, Vijaya Ramachandran, Manju Kedia Shah and Ginger Turner)Making the Most out of FDI in Africa (Norbert L W Wilson and Malick Diarrasouba) Readership: Students, researchers and academics in development economics; practitioners involved in poverty alleviation strategies and in transforming developing country economies. Keywords:Financial Markets;Biotechnology;PovertyKey Features:Highlights innovative institutions and strategies of improving access to capital and biotechnology for the poor, with a special focus on AfricaAddresses the global problem of poverty and economic development, and the role the market and technology can play in providing solutions to the problemIncludes contributions from leading academics and practitioners in the field
"With growth in Europe and Central Asia likely at its peak, this report addresses two questions. How well is the region prepared for an expected slowdown? How well has the economic upswing been used to adjust to the digital revolution? The report specifically focuses on cryptocurrency and blockchain activities in the region."
The theme of The World Development Report 2007 is youth - young people between the ages of 12 to 24. As this population group seeks identity and independence, they make decisions that affect not only their own well-being, but that of others, and they do this in a rapidly changing demographic and socio-economic environment. Supporting young people's transition to adulthood poses important opportunities and risky challenges for development policy. Are education systems preparing young people to cope with the demands of changing economies? What kind of support do they get as they enter the labor market? Can they move freely to where the jobs are? What can be done to help them avoid serious consequences of risky behavior, such as death from HIV-AIDS and drug abuse? Can their creative energy be directed productively to support development thinking? The report will focus on crucial capabilities and transitions in a young person's life: learning for life and work, staying healthy, working, forming families, and exercising citizenship. For each, there are opportunities and risks; for all, policies and institutions matter.
There is a striking scarcity of work conducted on rural labour markets in the developing world, particularly in Africa. This book aims to fill this gap by bringing together a group of contributors who boast substantial field experience researching rural wage employment in various developing countries. It provides critical perspectives on mainstream approaches to rural/agrarian development, and analysis of agrarian change and rural transformations from a long-term perspective. This book challenges the notion that rural areas in low- and middle-income countries are dominated by self-employment. It purports that this conventional view is largely due to the application of conceptual frameworks and statistical conventions that are ill-equipped to capture labour market participation. The contributions in this book offer a variety of methodological lessons for the study of rural labour markets, focusing in particular on the use of mixed methods in micro-level field research, and more emphasis on capturing occupation multiplicity. The emphasis on context, history, and specific configurations of power relations affecting rural labour market outcomes are key and reoccurring features of this book. This analysis will help readers think about policy options to improve the quantity and quality of rural wage employment, their impact on the poorest rural people, and their political feasibility in each context.
This book brings together the latest thinking about poverty dynamics from diverse analytic traditions. While covering a vast body of conceptual and empirical knowledge about economic and social mobility, it takes the reader on compelling journeys of multigenerational accounts of three villages in Kanartaka, India, twelve years in the life of a street child in Burkina Faso, and much more. Leading development practitioners and scholars from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology critically examine the literature from their disciplines and contribute new frameworks and evidence from their own works. The 'Moving Out of Poverty' series launched in 2007 is under the editorial direction of Deepa Narayan, Senior Advisor of the World Bank and former director of the pathbreaking 'Voices of the Poor' series. It features the results of new comparative research across more than 500 communities in 15 countries to understand how and why people move out of poverty, and presents other work which builds on interdisciplinary and contextually grounded understandings of growth and poverty reduction.
While there is no denying that the world has made huge progress against absolute poverty over the last 200 years, until recent times the bulk of that progress had been made in wealthy countries only. The good news is that we have seen greater progress against poverty in the developing world in recent times-indeed, a faster pace of progress against extreme poverty than the rich world saw over a period of 100 years or more of economic development. However, continuing progress is far from assured. High and rising inequality has stalled progress against poverty in many countries. We are seeing generally rising relative poverty in the rich world as a whole over recent decades. And even in the developing world, there has been less progress in reaching the poorest, who risk being left behind, and a great many people in the emerging middle class remain highly vulnerable to falling back into poverty. The Economics of Poverty strives to support well-informed efforts to put in place effective policies to assure continuing success in reducing poverty in all its dimensions. The book reviews critically the past and present debates on the central policy issues of economic development everywhere. How much poverty is there? Why does poverty exist? What can be done to eliminate poverty? Martin Ravallion provides an accessible new synthesis of current knowledge on these issues. It does not assume that readers know economics already. Those new to economics get a lot of help along the way in understanding its concepts and methods. Economics lives though its relevance to real world problems, and here the problem of global poverty is both the central focus and a vehicle for learning.
The papers in this book study economic development from the perspective of social justice and economic efficiency; exploring the role of land tenure and productivity in Indian agriculture. Junankar discusses the efficiency of small farms versus large farms, and the role of share-cropping tenancy.
Higher levels of the state can catalyze the development effectiveness of local administrations and communities, forming alliances with them and improving development outcomes while also gaining legitimacy and popular support. With creative political thinking it is possible to effect rapid change even in poor institutional settings.
This book contains eight speeches/lectures by Nicholas Stern during his first year as Chief Economist and Senior Vice President of the World Bank (2000-2001). Case studies of India, Indonesia, Pakistan and China are included. The final chapter examines the links between the investment climate for investment and growth, and poverty reduction.