Ecomorphology is the comparative study of the influence of morphology on ecological relationships and the evolutionary impact of ecological factors on morphology in different life intervals, populations, species, communities, and evolutionary lineages. The book reviews early attempts at qualitative descriptions of ecomorphological patterns in fishes, especially those of the Russian school. More recent, quantitative studies are emphasised, including multivariate approaches to ecomorphological analysis, the selection of functionally important ecological and morphological variables to analyze, an experimental approach using performance tests to examine specific hypotheses derived from functional morphology, and the evolutionary interpretations of ecomorphological patterns. Six major areas of fish biology are focused on: feeding, sensory systems, locomotion, respiration, reproduction, and phylogenetic relationships. The 18 papers in the volume document: (1) how the morphology of bony fishes constrains ecological patterns and the use of resources; (2) whether ecological constraints can narrow the niche beyond the limits imposed by morphology (fundamental vs. realized niche); (3) how communities of fishes are organized with respect to ecomorphological patterns; and (4) the degree to which evolutionary pressures have produced convergent or divergent morphologies in fishes. A concluding paper summarizes ecomorphological research in fishes and points out taxa that are underrepresented or are especially promising for future research.
Nearly a decade ago I began planning this book with the goal of summarizing the existing body of knowledge on ecology of freshwater fishes in a way similar to that of H. B. N. Hynes' comprehensive treatise Ecology of Running Waters for streams. The time seemed appropriate, as there had been several recent volumes that synthesized much information on a range of topics important in fish ecology, from biogeographic to local scales. For example, the "Fish Atlas" (Lee et aI. , 1980) had provided range maps and basic entry to the original literature for all freshwater fishes in North America, and in 1986 Hocutt and Wiley's Zoogeography of North American Fishes provided a detailed synthesis of virtually everything known about distributional ecology of fishes on that continent. Tim Berra (1981) had summarized in convenient map form the worldwide distribution of all freshwater fish families, and Joe Nelson's 1976 and 1984 editions of Fishes of the World had appeared. To complement these "big picture" views of fish distributions, the volume on Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Freshwater Fishes, edited by David Heins and myself (Matthews and Heins, 1987), had provided an opportunity for more than 30 individuals or groups to summarize their work on stream fishes (albeit mostly for warmwater systems).
Selected Papers from the Symposium on the 'Current Research and Techniques in Ecology and Morphology of Fishes', Held During the 1992 Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH) at the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana
The first in two decades to exclusively integrate physiological and biomechanical studies of fish locomotion, feeding and breathing, making this book both comprehensive and unique. Fish Physiology: Fish Biomechanics reviews and integrates recent developments in research on fish biomechanics, with particular emphasis on experimental results derived from the application of innovative new technologies to this area of research, such as high-speed video, sonomicrometry and digital imaging of flow fields. The collective chapters, written by leaders in the field, provide a multidisciplinary view and synthesis of the latest information on feeding mechanics, breathing mechanics, sensory systems, stability and maueverability, skeletal systems, muscle structure and performance, and hydrodynamics of steady and burst swimming, including riverine passage of migratory species. Book presents concepts in biomechanics, a rapidly expanding area of research First volume in over twenty years on this subject Multi-author volume with contributions by leaders in the field Clear explanations of basic biomechanical principles used in fish research Well illustrated with summary figures and explanatory color diagrams
Predicting Habitat Preferences of Stream Fishes from Their Body Shape
Category: Freshwater fishes
This research tested the ability of fish morphology to predict membership of fishes in habitat guilds, their swimming performance, and habitat preference. Further, it considered methods for choosing a surrogate species to identify habitat of target species. Morphological discriminant functions were developed using morphological traits of fishes from one river to identify membership in two habitat guild systems (mesohabitat and microhabitat). Functions were then used to test factors influencing classification success of holdout tests and validated using fishes of a second river. Morphology was only partly successful (50%) at predicting membership in habitat guilds. Morphology identified species by shape, i.e., classifying test species into guilds with members of their genus, but not habitat use, because morphology and habitat were not strongly linked through function. By improving guild definition, relationships between morphology and habitat (Froude number) were identified for all fish groups examined (darters, benthic minnows, pelagic minnows, and suckers). Relationships were not transferable among groups. Further, morphology of eight minnows was linked to swimming performance, a key task for using habitat, in lab measurements of critical swimming speeds. In turn, swimming performance was related to habitat (Froude number). Morphology will be most successful at predicting habitat use of fishes when (1) more, discrete guilds are used, (2) guilds are identified within families, (3) variation in lifestyles (benthic vs. pelagic) is considered, and (4) key tasks related to using habitat are strongly associated with morphology. Finally, Iexamined a phylogenetic approach to identifying useable habitat. Closely related surrogate species were not more accurate in identifying habitat of target species than surrogates chosen by other methods.
Coral Reef Fishes is the successor of The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. This new edition includes provocative reviews covering the major areas of reef fish ecology. Concerns about the future health of coral reefs, and recognition that reefs and their fishes are economically important components of the coastal oceans of many tropical nations, have led to enormous growth in research directed at reef fishes. This book is much more than a simple revision of the earlier volume; it is a companion that supports and extends the earlier work. The included syntheses provides readers with the current highlights in this exciting science. * An up-to-date review of key research areas in reef fish ecology, with a bibliography including hundreds of citations, most from the last decade * Authoritative and provocative chapters written to suggest future research priorities * Includes discussions of regulation of fish populations, dispersal or site fidelity of larval reef fishes, sensory and motor capabilities of reef fish larvae, and complexities of management of reef species and communities
Centrarchid fishes, also known as freshwater sunfishes, include such prominent species as the Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass and Bluegill. They are endemic to Eastern North America where they form part of a multi-million dollar sports fishing industry, but they have also been widely introduced around the globe by recreational anglers, in aquaculture programs and by government fisheries agencies. Centrarchid Fishes provides comprehensive coverage of all major aspects of this ecologically and commercially important group of fishes. Coverage includes diversity, ecomorphology, phylogeny and genetics, hybridization, reproduction, early life history and recruitment, feeding and growth, ecology, migrations, bioenergetics, physiology, diseases, aquaculture, fisheries management and conservation. Chapters have been written by well-known and respected scientists and the whole has been drawn together by Professors Cooke and Philipp, themselves extremely well respected in the area of fisheries management and conservation. Centrarchid Fishes is an essential purchase for all fish biologists, ecologists, fisheries managers and fish farm personnel who work with centrarchid species across the globe.
The book is a multi-authored book of 18 chapters comprising the state of the art work of all relevant topics on modern fish histology from 28 authors from ten countries. The topics include Introduction to Histological Techniques, Integument, Fish Skeletal Tissues, Muscular System, Structure and Function of Electric Organs, Digestive System, Glands of the Digestive Tract, Swim Bladder, Kidney, Ovaries and Eggs, Egg Envelopes, Testis Structure, Spermatogenesis, and Spermatozoa in Teleost Fishes, Cardiovascular System and Blood, Immune System of Fish, Gills: Respiration and Ionic-Osmoregulation, Sensory Organs, Morphology and Ecomorphology of the Fish Brain, and Endocrine System. Structural and functional aspects are treated and in a comparative way fish diversity at various taxonomic levels is integrated.
Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are highly conspicuous, diurnal inhabitants of mainly reef areas, capturing the attention of many scientists. Their high diversity and the many interesting characteristics dealing with their way of life (sound production, breeding biology, sex change, farming and gregarious behavior, settlement, diet, habitat) easily explain how this group is continually kept in the limelight and is the subject of numerous studies. This book gathers the data dealing with damselfish morphology, physiology, behavior, ecology and phylogeny.It contains 14 chapters written by renowned scientists.
Metamorphosis and the transition from larvae or embryos to juveniles in fishes are important in order to answer, for example, questions about: (1) life-history styles and their modifications in evolutionary perspective and within current environmental demands; (2) the development and application of fisheries recruitment models, (3) the use of ontogenetic scales for interspecific comparisons, (4) the identification of ontogenetic shifts in resource use, and (5) the discovery of evolutionary interrelationships of species or genera. This volume is dedicated to recent studies and reviews of existing knowledge on this insufficiently-addressed area of ichthyology. Most of the papers in this volume were presented in Bratislava, Slovakia, at the 1st International Workshop of the Fish Ontogeny Network of Europe (FONE) in September 1997, a meeting sponsored in part by the European Commission. This volume emphasizes an integrated approach to the study of fish ontogeny, which is a process during which one event is related to another and everything is related to everything else, encompassing physiology, morphology, behaviour and niche. Within this comprehensive perspective, the papers in this volume are grouped along four major themes: reflections on early ontogeny and metamorphosis, organism-environment relationships, ontogeny of predator-prey interactions, and behaviour and ontogeny. Among other issues, the papers consider topics such as whether one can identify when fish metamorphosis ends, whether the larva period begins with hatching or with the onset of exogenous feeding, whether fish ontogeny is `saltatory' or `gradual', and whether larvae are eliminated in some fishes with direct development. The keynote paper of this volume reviews the main topics within contemporary paradigms and the final paper concludes that the onset of the juvenile period can be identified in some species, but precision remains problematic, emphasizing the need for further research in this dynamic area of fish biology.