Drawing on new work published over the past twenty years, the author offers a history of building in Western Europe from 300 to 1200. Medieval castles, church spires, and monastic cloisters are just some of the areas covered.
At last available in English, this classic text was originally published in Germany in 1951 and has been continuously in print since then. Gunter Bandmann analyzes the architecture of societies in western Europe up to the twelfth century that aspired to be the heirs to the Roman Empire. He examines the occurrence and recurrence of basic forms not as stylistic evolutions but as meaningful expressions of meta-material content and develops an architectural iconography of symbolic, historical, and aesthetic elements.
This book is the first devoted to the important innovations in architecture that took place in western Europe between the death of emperor Justinian in A.D. 565 and the tenth century. During this period of transition from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages, the Early Christian basilica was transformed in both form and function.Charles B. McClendon draws on rich documentary evidence and archaeological data to show that the buildings of these three centuries, studied in isolation but rarely together, set substantial precedents for the future of medieval architecture. He looks at buildings of the so-called Dark Ages—monuments that reflected a new assimilation of seemingly antithetical “barbarian” and “classical” attitudes toward architecture and its decoration—and at the grand and innovative architecture of the Carolingian Empire. The great Romanesque and Gothic churches of subsequent centuries owe far more to the architectural achievements of the Early Middle Ages than has generally been recognized, the author argues.
The Benedictine abbey of Farfa was one of the most important monastic centers of medieval Europe. As an imperial establishment, patronize and protected by Charlemagne and his successors yet situated only thirty miles northeast of Rome, Farfa was often found at the center of events involving the papacy and the Empire. While its historical importance has long been recognized, the physical remains of the abbey have received little attention until now. This book by Charles B. McClendon is unique in combining an assessment of Farfa's place in the overall development of medieval architecture with an analysis of the abbey's historical role. McClendon has based his study on a detailed architectural survey of the medieval abbey church and on the extensive excavations of the site carried out under his co-direction between 1978 and 1983. By examining archaeological, architectural, and historical sources, McClendon reconstructs the various phases in the growth of the monastic layout from late antiquity to the early Renaissance, analyzes the circumstances under which they were built, and relates his findings to the architectural currents of the day. He shows, for example, that the ninth-century additions to the abbey church by Abbot Sichardus reflect the Carolingian revival of the plan of Old St. Peter's in Rome; that the design of other features points to influence from north of the Alps; that the east end of the abbey church, extensively rebuilt in the mid-eleventh century, should be considered a major monument of the early Romanesque period. Demonstrating that each phase of the architectural history of Farfa reflects the latest developments not only in Italy but also in the north, McClendon makes clear that Farfa provides a valuable understanding of the dynamic forces that helped shape the architecture of the early Middle Ages. "Scholarship at its best. . . . This volume will be the standard reference for many years to come."--Richard Krautheimer, New York University
In analyzing the early medieval architecture of Christian and Islamic Spain, Jerrilynn Dodds explores the principles of artistic response to social and cultural tension, offering an account of that unique artistic experience that set Spain apart from the rest of Europe and established a visual identity born of the confrontation of cultures that perceived one another as alien. Architecture and Ideology in Early Medieval Spain covers the Spanish medieval experience from the Visigothic oligarchy to the year 1000, addressing a variety of cases of cultural interchange. It examines the embattled reactive stance of Hispano-Romans to their Visigothic rulers and the Asturian search for a new language of forms to support a political position dissociated from the struggles of a peninsula caught in the grip of a foreign and infidel rule. Dodds then examines the symbolic meaning of the Mozarabic churches of the tenth century and their reflection of the Mozarabs' threatened cultural identity. The final chapter focuses on two cases of artistic interchange between Islamic and Christian builders with a view toward understanding the dynamics of such interchange between conflicting cultures. Dodds concludes with a short account of the beginning of Romanesque architecture in Spain and an analysis of some of the ways in which artistic expression can reveal the subconscious of a culture.
This is the first book devoted to churches in Ireland dating from the arrival of Christianity in the fifth century to the early stages of the Romanesque around 1100, including those built to house treasures of the golden age of Irish art, such as the Book of Kells and the Ardagh chalice. � Carrag�in's comprehensive survey of the surviving examples forms the basis for a far-reaching analysis of why these buildings looked as they did, and what they meant in the context of early Irish society. � Carrag�in also identifies a clear political and ideological context for the first Romanesque churches in Ireland and shows that, to a considerable extent, the Irish Romanesque represents the perpetuation of a long-established architectural tradition.
Oral Poetics and Architecture in Early Medieval England
Author: Lori Ann Garner
Publisher: Poetics of Orality and Literac
In Structuring Spaces: Oral Poetics and Architecture in Early Medieval England, Lori Ann Garner illuminates the idiomatic and traditional meanings invested in depictions of architecture within the vernacular verse of early medieval England, portrayals that consistently demonstrate a shared aesthetic between literary texts and physical buildings. Through systematic exploration of the period's verbal and material culture as complementary art forms, Garner argues that in Anglo-Saxon England the arts of poetry and building emerged from the same cultural matrix. Not only did Anglo-Saxon builders and poets draw demonstrably from many of the same traditionally encoded motifs and images, but so rhetorically powerful was the period's architectural poetics that its expressive force continued in literature and architecture produced long after the Norman Conquest. Far from conceiving this inherited tradition as monolithic in nature, Structuring Spaces foregrounds the complex interface of orality and literacy as a nexus of varied and multivalent cultural traditions that influenced the production of texts and buildings alike. After establishing a model of architectural poetics based on oral theory and vernacular architecture, Garner explores fictionalized buildings in such works as Beowulf and the Ruin, architectural representation in Old English adaptations of Greek and Latin works, uses of architectural metaphor, and themes of buildings in Anglo-Saxon maxims, riddles, elegies, hagiographies, and charms. Her book draws on scholarship from art history, archaeology, anthropology, and architecture, as well as the great wealth of studies addressing the literature itself. "Detailing the deeply interconnected relationship of Anglo-Saxon oral poetics and the architectonics of constructed space in the period, Lori Garner's Structuring Spaces makes a significant contribution. Her ability to put the material culture of the period, despite the truly fragmentary nature of the surviving evidence, into a direct and mutually illuminating dialogue with the discourse of oral poetics is very impressive and of considerable value to scholars in the several fields of medieval literature, medieval architecture, and oral theory." --Mark C. Amodio, Vassar College "In this wide-ranging and lavishly-illustrated study, Lori Garner effectively aligns the established approach of oral poetics with insights from the emerging field of vernacular architecture. From Heorot to Grendel's mere, from the Mermedonian prison of Andreas to the nest of The Phoenix, from the Wife's earth-hall to Holofernes' tent, Garner's sensitive readings of the poetics of built spaces in Old English poetry open up new perspectives on "conventional" imagery that we only thought we knew how to read." --Charles D. Wright, University of Illinois
Exploring the aristocratic villas and court culture of C?ba, during its 'golden age' under the reign of the Umayyad dynasty (r. 756-1031 AD), this study illuminates a key facet of the secular architecture of the court and its relationship to the well-known Umayyad luxury arts. Based on textual and archaeological evidence, it offers a detailed analysis of the estates' architecture and gardens within a synthetic socio-historical framework. Author Glaire Anderson focuses closely on the C?ban case study, synthesizing the archaeological evidence for the villas that has been unearthed from the 1980s up to 2009, with extant works of Andalusi art and architecture, as well as evidence from the Arabic texts. While the author brings her expertise on medieval Islamic architecture, art, and urbanism to the topic, the book contributes to wider art historical discourse as well: it is also a synthetic project that incorporates material and insights from experts in other fields (agricultural, economic, and social and political history). In this way, it offers a fuller picture of the topic and its relevance to Andalusi architecture and art, and to broader issues of architecture and social history in the caliphal lands and the Mediterranean. An important contribution of the book is that it illuminates the social history of the C?ban villas, drawing on the medieval Arabic texts to explain patterns of patronage among the court elite. An overarching theme of the book is that the C?ban estates fit within the larger historical constellation of Mediterranean villas and villa cultures, in contrast to long-standing art historical discourse that holds villas did not exist in the medieval period.
The Practical Application of Geometry in Medieval Architecture
Author: Nancy Y. Wu
The purpose of the project is to provide the most up-to-date survey on issues dealing with practical geometry and how it might have been applied in the design of medieval architecture. Chronologically, the topics cover a wide span - from early Medieval through Late Gothic. Geographically, the monuments under discussion range from Early Medieval Florence through Carolingian Germany, Crusader Cyprus, Romanesque France and Gothic England. The applications of both geometry and metrology are considered in this volume, often with illustrations generated by computer-assisted design (CAD) software. The project therefore offers recent scholarship in the field, as well as cutting-edge technology which helps propel the pursuit of such studies. To this end, the project is the first of its kind both in terms of its focus and its comprehensiveness. Such a project is sorely needed to introduce this highly specialized discipline to other historians of art, history, and science of the Middle Ages, as well as historians in most humanistic areas.
The architecture of the Middle Ages is still vividly present in the cities of Europe. This highly pictorial text provides information on medieval buildings, introducing the fundamentals and the unique features of the Romanesque and Gothic art of building, and especially of sacred buildings.
The Building Traditions of Byzantium and Neighboring Lands
Author: Robert Ousterhout
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The rich and diverse architectural traditions of the Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent regions are the subject of this book. Representing the visual residues of a "forgotten" Middle Ages, the social and cultural developments of the Byzantine Empire, the Caucasus, the Balkans, Russia, and the Middle East parallel the more familiar architecture of Western Europe. The book offers an expansive view of the architectural developments of the Byzantine Empire and areas under its cultural influence, as well as the intellectual currents that lie behind their creation. The book alternates chapters that address chronological or regionally-based developments with thematic studies that focus on the larger cultural concerns, as they are expressed in architectural form.
One of the first studies to consider how church rituals were performed in Anglo-Saxon England. Brings together evidence from written, archaeological, and architectural sources. It will be of particular interest to architectural specialists keen to know more about liturgy, and church historians who would like to learn more about architecture.
Vol. 1 "is supplementary to my 'Indian architecture: its psychology, structure, and history' [i.e., V. 2] which [deals] with the Muhammadan and British periods, but it has a wider scope as a study of the political, social, religious, and artistic aspects of Indo-Aryan civilisation."-- Pref.