Provides an overview of development, then describes principles and sequences of physical, cognitive, and social/emotional development at the infant, toddler, preschool, and primary levels. Individual differences and developmental norms are stressed throughout.
This Encyclopedia is a reference work about young children in the USA, designed for use by policy makers, community planners, parents of young children, teacher and early childhood educators, programme and school administrators, among others. The field of early childhood education has been affected by changes taking place in the nation’s economy, demographics, schools, communities and families that influence political and professional decisions. These diverse historical, political economic, socio-cultural, intellectual and educational influences on early childhood education have hindered the development of a clear definition of the field. The Encyclopedia provides an opportunity to define the field against the background of these influences and relates the field of early childhood education to its diverse contexts and to the cultural and technological resources currently affecting it.
Examines the meaning of curriculum, discusses curriculum integration, describes how to plan, create, and evaluate a curriculum, and examines how modern literacy, mathematics, social studies, science, and expressive arts curricula evolved into their present forms. Methods of assessing children's progress through the curriculum are integrated throughout.
This is the third volume in our four volume book series Early Childhood Education. This volume will explore both physical and social aspects of early education settings and applies principals to children with a range of abilities.
Why Our Kids Must and Can Get Smaller Schools and Classes
Author: Garrett Delavan
Publisher: Temple University Press
The Teacher’s Attention is a fresh take on relationships in schools. Looking beyond our obsession with raising test scores, this book recognizes that education is a key partner in raising children. Garrett Delavan contends that allowing students, educators and parents to navigate a smaller number of relationships—a concept he calls "relationship load"—provides many benefits, including a better chance at achieving equal access to a good education for all children. Delavan shows how class size, school size, and longer-term student-teacher relationships are all equally critical components for educating our children ethically and successfully. After examining these proposed reforms in detail, Delavan also considers counterarguments and provides a detailed projection of costs and savings, putting to rest the assumption that smaller classes and smaller schools are necessarily more expensive. Finally, the book discusses possible steps toward implementation, showing how the author's proposed reforms are remarkably practical.
1. Introduction. 2. Constructs and Measures. 3. Looking and Visual Attention: Overview and Developmental Framework. 4. Scanning, Searching, and Shifting Attention. 5. Development of Selectivity. 6. Development of Attention as a State. 7. Focused Visual Attention and Resistance to Distraction. 8. Increasing Independence in the Control of Attention. 9. Attention in Learning and Performance. 10. Individual Differences in Attention. 11. Early Manifestations of Attention Deficits. 12. Individuality and Development. 13. Recapitulation. References. Author Index. Subject Index
Based on the pioneering work of Mary D. Sheridan, Play in Early Childhood is a classic introductory text to play and development – key topics for all those who work with young children. Updated for a contemporary audience and fully evidence-based, it explains how children’s play develops and how they develop as they play. With over eighty illustrations and observations of play from birth to six years, this new edition presents classical and contemporary literature, making clear links between play and all areas of children’s development. It includes activities to consolidate thinking and suggestions for further reading throughout. Play in Early Childhood considers: the development, value and characteristics of play issues relating to culture, adversity and gender play from recreational, therapeutic and educational perspectives the role of parents/caregivers and professionals in supporting play Suitable for those new to the area or for more experienced workers wanting a quick reference guide, this easy-to-follow book meets the needs of students and professionals from a wide range of health, education and social care backgrounds, including early years professionals, playworkers, children’s nurses, speech and language therapists and social workers.
The Blackwell Handbook of Early Childhood Development presents a comprehensive summary of research into child development from age two to seven. Comprises 30 contributions from both established scholars and emerging leaders in the field The editors have a distinguished reputation in early childhood development Covers biological development, cognitive development, language development, and social, emotional and regulatory development Considers the applications of psychology to the care and education of young children, treating issues such as poverty, media, and the transition to school A valuable resource for students, scholars and practitioners dealing with young children
Mary D. Sheridan’s Play in Early Childhood is a classic introductory text to play and development – key topics for all those who work with young children. Drawing on the most up-to-date evidence, it explains how children’s play develops and how they develop as they play. With over 100 illustrations and observations of play from birth to six years, this new edition presents classical and contemporary literature, making clear links between play and all areas of children’s development. It includes updated activities to consolidate thinking and suggestions for further reading throughout. This text considers: the development, value and characteristics of play issues relating to culture, adversity, gender, attachment and brain development play from recreational, therapeutic and educational perspectives the role of parents/caregivers and professionals in supporting play how to develop observation and reflection skills for use in your own practice Suitable both for those new to the area and for more experienced workers wanting a quick reference guide, this easy-to-follow book meets the needs of students and professionals from a wide range of health, education and social care backgrounds, including early years professionals, playworkers, children’s nurses, play therapists and social workers.
The Development and Acquisition of Cognition in Childhood
Author: Sara Meadows
This second edition of The Child as Thinker has been thoroughly revised and updated to provide an informed and accessible overview of the varied and extensive literature on children's cognition. Both theory and research data are critically examined and educational implications are discussed. After a brief discussion of the nature and subject of cognition, Sara Meadows reviews children's thinking in detail. She discusses the ways children remember and organise information in general, the acquisition of skills such as reading, writing and arithmetic, and the development of more complex reasoning as children grow to maturity. As well as studies that typically describe a generalised child, the book also reviews some of the main areas relevant to individual differences in normal cognitive development, and critically examines three major models of cognitive development. In outlining the work of Piaget, information-processing accounts and neo-Vygotskian theories, she also evaluates their different explanations of cognitive development and their implications for education. Finally, the book examines biological and social factors that may be involved in normal and suboptimal cognitive development. Sara Meadows provides an important review of the crucial issues involved in understanding cognitive development and of the new data and models that have emerged in the last few years. This book brings together areas and approaches that have hitherto been independent, and examines their strengths and weaknesses. The Child as Thinker is essential reading for all students of cognitive development.
Early childhood mathematics is vitally important for young children's present and future educational success. Research demonstrates that virtually all young children have the capability to learn and become competent in mathematics. Furthermore, young children enjoy their early informal experiences with mathematics. Unfortunately, many children's potential in mathematics is not fully realized, especially those children who are economically disadvantaged. This is due, in part, to a lack of opportunities to learn mathematics in early childhood settings or through everyday experiences in the home and in their communities. Improvements in early childhood mathematics education can provide young children with the foundation for school success. Relying on a comprehensive review of the research, Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood lays out the critical areas that should be the focus of young children's early mathematics education, explores the extent to which they are currently being incorporated in early childhood settings, and identifies the changes needed to improve the quality of mathematics experiences for young children. This book serves as a call to action to improve the state of early childhood mathematics. It will be especially useful for policy makers and practitioners-those who work directly with children and their families in shaping the policies that affect the education of young children.
Applications to Social, Executive Function, Language, and Reading Skills
Author: Victoria J. Molfese
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS
Developmental changes in cognitive abilities in childhood have long been of interest to researchers across many fields, including behavioral sciences, communications, education, and medicine. With the publication of research findings showing individual differences in the development of children's learning skills has come the realization that models, methodologies, and analysis approaches that include consideration of individual differences are needed. It has brought an increase in research collaborations among experts in different fields who bring different approaches together in studies of cognitive abilities. This work has yielded a growing body of knowledge about how children with normal abilities and those with developmental disorders learn, gain skills in social competency, develop decision making and planning abilities, and acquire language skills and the skills needed for reading and writing. More recently, researchers have sought to use this body of knowledge as a basis for the early identification of children at risk for cognitive delays and for the development and evaluation of intervention approaches. The chapters in this book review literature in five areas of cognition, and provide theory- and research-based information on the applications of research findings and intervention approaches. Throughout the chapters, information on the interactions of different cognitive abilities and the role of individual differences in development that influences development assessments is included.
This book presents a broad range of original data on childhood in Victorian Britain. It combines a social science approach to data with historical context, resulting in a highly readable account based on sound historiography. Against a backdrop of the industrial revolution, an expanding economy, and a rising standard of living, Victorian Childhood explores life and death, child development, the family, work, education, social life, cities, crime, and advocacy and reform. Presenting data on the deteriorating health of children during the nineteenth century and on their increasing displacement of adults in the workplace, the author demonstrates that they did not share proportionately in the increased standard of living. Jordan's book is a unique piece of scholarship in its range, focus, and presentation. Original sources such as diaries and memoirs not previously cited elsewhere, literature from the period, and anecdotes from the children themselves animate the statistical background and provide vivid pictures of their lives.
This text brings together the best information available on creating an integrated, holistic approach to curriculum and instruction for children age 3 to 8 in child care, preschool, and early elementary grade settings. Provides Comprehensive Coverage in Teaching Students How to Plan and Implement Developmentally Appropriate, Integrated Curriculum Addresses "all" aspects of classroom life, including children's development and learning, adult roles, creating physical and social environments, guiding childrens' behavior, teaching and learning within multiple domains, classroom management, assessment, and involving families. Core curricular chapters include an overview, common issues, goals and objectives, teaching strategies, and many activity suggestions. Provides opportunities for readers to develop materials for a professional portfolio. Reinforces understanding of material with new "Practice for Your Certification or Licensure Exam" assessment items. Takes a Developmental Approach Curriculum chapters are organized by developmental/curricular domains: aesthetic, affective, cognitive, language, physical, and social. This ensures that children's developmental needs are met while also addressing appropriate learning expectations for young children. Incorporates Standards New "Consult the Standards" tables and application activities at the end of each chapter help students understand where to find learning standards and provide concrete opportunities to use them in planning curriculum. Goals and Objectives presented in domain chapters are based on developmental research and on a variety of national standards. Integrates Diversity Throughout Content, vignettes, and examples reflect all types of diversity: socioeconomic, ability, cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and gender. Boxed "Examples of involving children with special needs" show teachers how to make adaptations. "Instructor Resources include Online Test Bank, Test Management software, PowerPoint Slides, WebCT and Blackboard cartridges, and an Online Instructor's Manual (with Classroom Observation tool for students in field placements and a Lesson Plan Grading Checklist). "
This study provides an overview of Bank investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) from 2000-2013 within the Education, Health, Nutrition and Population, and Social Protection and Labor practices.
Consultant in Early Childhood and Remedial Education and Educational Technology
Author: A.S. Wisbey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The evidence grows daily that much learning failure results from undetected early childhood hearing problems (Gordon 1977). This is because the child is deprived of the state of acute hearing sensitivity normally present at birth which makes it possible to recognize the loudness levels and duration of each individual sound. This is how a child learns the signifi cance of the slightest variations in the quality of each sound as he collects information from the environment through all his senses, and the meaning of these changes is experienced and understood. As a result of normal sensory experience and reaction with the environment the multisensory systems are used and developed. Similarly, the growth of the brain is stimulated to make possible the storage of infor mation and to produce the biochemical state necessary to transmit and relate the sensory information so collected and stored (Monckeberg and Prescott, 1975). If the loudness level of sound is reduced so too is its impact. In this form a baby's normal 'startle response' to a sound, which includes the flickering open of the eyes, is rarely experienced. This response of the eyes is a seeking out of a sound source. The visual localizing of sound sources, leading to the antiCipation of their spatial position, arises from the ability to hear the fine changes of pitch and loudness levels involved in movement.
Reflecting a multitude of developments in the study of language change and variation over the last ten years, this extensively updated second edition features a number of new chapters and remains the authoritative reference volume on a core research area in linguistics. A fully revised and expanded edition of this acclaimed reference work, which has established its reputation based on its unrivalled scope and depth of analysis in this interdisciplinary field Includes seven new chapters, while the remainder have undergone thorough revision and updating to incorporate the latest research and reflect numerous developments in the field Accessibly structured by theme, covering topics including data collection and evaluation, linguistic structure, language and time, language contact, language domains, and social differentiation Brings together an experienced, international editorial and contributor team to provides an unrivalled learning, teaching and reference tool for researchers and students in sociolinguistics
Early Childhood Education and Care in Liberal Welfare States
Author: Linda A. White
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
In Constructing Policy Change, Linda A. White examines the expansion of early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies and programs in liberal welfare states, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK, and the USA. In the first part of the book, the author investigates the sources of policy ideas that triggered ECEC changes in various national contexts. This is followed by a close analysis of cross-national variation in the implementation of ECEC policy in Canada and the USA. White argues that the primary mechanisms for policy change are grounded in policy investment logics as well as cultural logics: that is, shifts in public sentiments and government beliefs about the value of ECEC policies and programs are rooted in both evidence-based arguments and in principled beliefs about the policy. A rich, nuanced examination of the reasons motivating ECEC policy expansion and adoption in different countries, Constructing Policy Change is a corrective to the comparative welfare state literature that focuses on political interest alone.
This volume shares significant contemporary "Francophone" contributions to developmental psychology outside geographic and intellectual borders of French-speaking countries. Except for the spread of Piagetian theory after World War II into Anglophone psychology, these new publications have not become so well known worldwide as progress in Francophone developmental psychology warrants. However, the work of a new generation of developmental theorists and experimentalists continues to shape important and original lines of thinking and research in France, Canada, and in other French-speaking countries. This work also contributes uniquely to issues such as sensori-motor development, perception, language acquisition, social interaction, and the growth and induction of cognitive mechanisms. Scientific concepts are not only embedded in a paradigm, but also in a culture and a language. Instead of writing about Francophone developmental psychology from "outside," this volume brings together original English-language contributions written by researchers working in different Francophone countries. Chapters summarize and interpret research on a given topic, making explicit the context of philosophical and theoretical traditions in which the empirical advances are embedded. Original essays are accompanied by editorial commentaries from eminent scientists working on the same topics in other parts of the world -- topics that are closely related to Francophone streams of thought and themes of study. Together, these essays fully and faithfully represent modern scientific perspectives toward understanding many facets of mental growth and development of the young child.