Multispecies Assemblages, Ecosystem Development and Environmental Change
Author: Peter C de Ruiter
Dynamic Food Webs challenges us to rethink what factors may determine ecological and evolutionary pathways of food web development. It touches upon the intriguing idea that trophic interactions drive patterns and dynamics at different levels of biological organization: dynamics in species composition, dynamics in population life-history parameters and abundances, and dynamics in individual growth, size and behavior. These dynamics are shown to be strongly interrelated governing food web structure and stability and the role of populations and communities play in ecosystem functioning. Dynamic Food Webs not only offers over 100 illustrations, but also contains 8 riveting sections devoted to an understanding of how to manage the effects of environmental change, the protection of biological diversity and the sustainable use of natural resources. Dynamic Food Webs is a volume in the Theoretical Ecology series. Relates dynamics on different levels of biological organization: individuals, populations, and communities Deals with empirical and theoretical approaches Discusses the role of community food webs in ecosystem functioning Proposes methods to assess the effects of environmental change on the structure of biological communities and ecosystem functioning Offers an analyses of the relationship between complexity and stability in food webs
Help students think and engage like scientists! BIOLOGY: THE DYNAMIC SCIENCE, Second Edition, provides students with a deep understanding of the core concepts in Biology, building a strong foundation for additional study. In a fresh presentation, the authors explain complex ideas clearly and describe how biologists collect and interpret evidence to test hypotheses about the living world. Russell, Hertz, and McMillan spark students’ curiosity about living systems instead of burying it under a mountain of disconnected facts. They engage students with what scientists know about the living world, how they know it, and what they still need to learn. By conveying the author’s passion for biological research, the text helps students cultivate the mental habits of scientists. The accompanying Aplia for Biology interactively guides students through the thought processes and procedures that scientists use in their research and helps them apply and synthesize specific content from the text. Overall, students learn how to think like scientists and engage in the scientific process themselves. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Healthy environment is important for any kind of biota on earth. It provides the basic elements of life such as clean water, fresh air, fertile soil and supports ecosystem of the food chain. Pollution drastically alters quality of the environment by changing the physico-chemical and biological aspects of these components. Accordingly, toxic metals, combustible and putrescible substances, hazardous wastes, explosives and petroleum products are all examples of inorganic and organic compounds that cause contaminations. Specifically, pollution of toxic and heavy metal in the environment is a growing problem worldwide, currently at an alarming rate. Toxic metals threaten the aquatic ecosystems, agriculture and ultimately human health. Traditional treatment techniques offer certain advantages such as rapid processing, ease of operation and control and flexibility. But, they could not maintain the quality of the environment due to the high operational costs of chemicals used, high energy consumption and handling costs for sludge disposal and overburden of chemical substances which irreversibly affect and destroy biodiversity, which ultimately render the soil useless as a medium for plant growth. Therefore, bioremediation and biotechnology, carried out by living assets to clean up, stabilize and restore contaminated ecosystems, have emerged as promising, environmental friendly and affordable approaches. Furthermore, the use of microbes, algae, transgenic plants and weeds adapted to stressful environments could be employed to enhance accumulation efficiency. Hence, sustainable and inexpensive processes are fast emerging as a viable alternative to conventional remediation methods, and will be most suitable for developing countries. In the current volume, we discuss pollution remediation challenges and how living organisms and the latest biotechnological techniques could be helpful in remediating the pollution in ecofriendly and sustainable ways.
Studying the Ocean Planet requires measuring and sampling instruments to feed models that take into account its complexity. This book presents the diversity of observation and monitoring techniques at various scales, but also different kinds of model that take into account some conceptual schemes incorporating various scientific knowledge. Sampling is approached via the efficiency of fishing gears; underwater acoustics is used to detect, count, identify and listen to live and mobile living resources. Bio-logging allows us to rely on the behavior of marine animals to help investigate environments that are difficult to sample by conventional means, while listing the physiological changes they undergo. Modeling is presented not only in a functional framework, but also in an exploratory design incorporating various scenarios for ecosystem changes under the pressure of global change. This ninth volume completes the “Seas and Oceans” Set that adopts a transversal approach leading to the governance and sustainable management of the marine environment.
"Human impacts are dramatically altering our natural ecosystems. The implications of these human impacts on the sustainability and functioning of these amazingly complex entities remains uncertain. As a result, food web theory has experienced a proliferation of research that seeks to address this critical area. This book synthesizes modern and classical results into a general theory. Finally, this book takes this general theoretical framework and discusses the implications of human impact for the stability and sustainability of ecological systems"--
Major changes in policy and management , across the entire agricultural production chain, will be needed to ensure the best use of available water resources in meeting growing demands for food and other agricultural products. This new volume in the successful History of Water Series focuses on the African continent to address this key issue. Humanity has its roots in Africa and many of our food systems developed there. All types of agricultural production are present and the sheer size of the continent offers wide ecological variation from extreme desert to dense rainforest. Drawing together leading international contributors from a wide variety of disciplines Water and Food offers new insights into the evolution of food systems, from early hunter gatherers to the global challenges of the modern world.
Disease Ecology highlights exciting advances in theoretical and empirical research towards understanding the importance of community structure in the emergence of infectious diseases. The chapters in this book illustrate aspects of community ecology that influence pathogen transmission rates and disease dynamics in a wide variety of study systems. The innovative studies presented here communicate a clear message: studies of epidemiology can be approached from the perspective of community ecology, and students of community ecology can contribute significantly to epidemiology.
Recent scientific literature has raised many concerns about whether fisheries have caused more extensive changes to marine populations and ecosystems than previously realized or predicted. In many cases, stocks have been exploited far beyond management targets, and new analyses indicate that fishing has harmed other species—including marine mammals, seabirds, sea turtles, and sea grasses—either directly through catch or habitat damage, or indirectly through changes in food-web interactions. At the request of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Research Council conducted an independent study to weigh the collective evidence for fishery-induced changes to marine ecosystems and the implications of the findings for U.S. fisheries management. Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems provides comprehensive information in regard to these findings.
The world's wetlands. Biogeochemistry. Biogeochemical cycling in wetlands in the "old" and "new" world. Tidal exchange: import-export of nutrients and organic matter in salt marshes. Ecological engineering. Wetlands and water quality. Wetlands for ecological engineering - examples from extreme circumstances. Wetland creation and restoration. Modelling and analysis. Integration of dynamic and spatial modelling of wetlands. Wetland ecosystem functioning and analysis. Policy and management. River and delta wetland management in developed and developing countries. Wetlands and disease control. Management of wetland habitat and conservation of vanishing wildlife in southeast Asia. Regulatory framework for wetlands protection.
The general theme is being based around the ongoing European Science Foundation SIZEMIC Research Network, which has been running for several years. The network has focused on the role of body size in ecosystems and embraces a wide remit that spans all ecosystem types and a range of disciplines, from theoretical to applied ecology. Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings Written by leading experts in the field Highlights areas for future investigation
It is a pleasure and a distinct honour for me to greet the participants, guests and ob servers of this Fourth International Symposium on Antarctic Biology which has adopted nutrient cycles and food webs as its central theme. On behalf of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and other bodies of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), I bid you welcome. SCAR is pleased to acknowledge the role of the co-sponsors for this Symposium which include the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), the Interna tional Association of Biological Oceanography (IABO), and the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS). In addition, SCAR and its co-sponsors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Re search (CSIR) and the Department of Transport (DOT) of the South African govern ment. Nor should we forget to acknowledge also the role of the South African Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SASCAR) and one of its leaders and Vice President of SCAR, Mr. Jan de Wit, in arranging this charming venue for this Symposium.
One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.
This indispensable guide provides a comprehensive treatment of the construction and analysis of models for age- and stage-classified populations. It covers methods based on projection matrices, delay-differential equations, and partial-differential equations. The book addresses both field and laboratory studies on a wide range of specific ecosystems and taxa, as well as problems in evolution, genetics, conservation biology and epidemiology.
The practical engineer looking for an urgent solution to a sediment-related project often finds that the results of the relevant academic research are published in unfamiliar language in publications that are not easily available. Dynamics of marine sands bridges the gap between academic research and practical applications by summarising the research results in a unified form, backed up with worked examples and case studies.