Doubled Haploid Production in Crop Plants

A Manual

Author: M. Maluszynski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 998

The production of doubled haploids has become a necessary tool in advanced plant breeding institutes and commercial companies for breeding many crop species. However, the development of new, more efficient and cheaper large scale production protocols has meant that doubled haploids are also recently being applied in less advanced breeding programmes. This Manual was prepared to stimulate the wider use of this technology for speeding and opening up new breeding possibilities for many crops including some woody tree species. Since the construction of genetic maps using molecular markers requires the development of segregating doubled haploid populations in numerous crop species, we hope that this Manual will also help molecular biologists in establishing such mapping populations. For many years, both the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported and coordinated research that focuses on development of more efficient doubled haploid production methods and their applications in breeding of new varieties and basic research through their Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint F AO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The first F AO/IAEA scientific network (Coordinated Research Programme - CRP) dealing with doubled haploids was initiated by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section in 1986.

Progress and Opportunities of Doubled Haploid Production

Author: Muhammad Asif

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 75

View: 862

Deals with the historical perspectives and the current status of doubled haploid production along with its practical implications in basic and applied research. It highlights various haploid production methods with a comprehensive discussion on their pros and cons, bottlenecks, and embryogenic pathways. The review also describes in detail the results of molecular and genomic studies conducted to investigate the underlying principles of this spectacular technique that has changed the status of many species from recalcitrant to responsive over the last ninety years. ​

Advances in Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Author: Alisher Touraev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 204

The importance of haploids is well known to geneticists and plant breeders. The discovery of anther-derived haploid Datura plants in 1964 initiated great excitement in the plant breeding and genetics communities as it offered shortcuts in producing highly desirable homozygous plants. Unfortunately, the expected revolution was slow to materialise due to problems in extending methods to other species, including genotypic dependence, recalcitrance, slow development of tissue culture technologies and a lack of knowledge of the underlying processes. Recent years have witnessed great strides in the research and application of haploids in higher plants. After a lull in activities, drivers for the resurgence have been: (1) development of effective tissue culture protocols, (2) identification of genes c- trolling embryogenesis, and (3) large scale and wide spread commercial up-take in plant breeding and plant biotechnology arenas. The first major international symposium on “Haploids in Higher Plants” took place in Guelph, Canada in 1974. At that time there was much excitement about the potential benefits, but in his opening address Sir Ralph Riley offered the following words of caution: “I believe that it is quite likely that haploid research will contr- ute cultivars to agriculture in several crops in the future. However, the more extreme claims of the enthusiasts for haploid breeding must be treated with proper caution. Plant breeding is subject from time to time to sweeping claims from ent- siastic proponents of new procedures.

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 2: Applications

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 669

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have al lowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 4: Cereals

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 789

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have allowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

In vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 3: Important Selected Plants

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 303

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have alIowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of alI crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

In vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 3: Important Selected Plants

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 204

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have alIowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of alI crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 1: Fundamental Aspects and Methods

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 999

The 18 chapters making up In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants are divided into two sections. Section 1 (eight chapters) covers historical and fundamental aspects of haploidy in crop improvement. Section 2 deals with methods of haploid production, including anther culture, micropore culture, ovary culture, pollination with irradiated pollen, in vitro pollination, and special culture techniques, including polyhaploid production in the Triticeae by sexual hybridization, the influence of ethylene and gelling agents on anther culture, conditional lethal markers, and methods of chromosome doubling.

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 5 — Oil, Ornamental and Miscellaneous Plants

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 605

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have allowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 5 — Oil, Ornamental and Miscellaneous Plants

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 957

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have allowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

Haploids in Crop Improvement II

Author: C. E. Don Palmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 684

Overview of Haploidy.-Pathways to Microspore Embryogenesis.-The Role of Stress in the Induction of Haploid Microspore Embryogenesis.-Microspore Embryo Induction and Development in Higher Plants: Cytological and Ultrastructural Aspects.- Biochemical and Molecular Aspects of Haploid Embryogenesis.-Storage Product Metabolism in Microspore-Derived Cultures of Brassicaceae.-Chromosome Doubling and Recovery of Doubled Haploids.-Utilization of Microspore-Derived Embryos.- Haploids in the Improvement of Solanaceous Species.-Haploids in the Improvement of Crucifers.-Haploids in the Improvement of Poaceae.-Haploids in the Improvement of Woody Species.-Haploids in the Improvement of Miscellaneous Crop Species (Cucurbitaceae, Liliaceae, Asparageceae, Chenopodiaceae, Araceae and Umbelliferae).-Haploids in the Improvement of Numbers of the Linaceae and Asteraceae.-Challenges and Limitations to the Use of Haploidy in Crop Improvement

Crop Improvement Under Adverse Conditions

Author: Narendra Tuteja

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 257

Plant development and productivity are negatively regulated by various environmental stresses. Abiotic stress factors such as heat, cold, drought, and salinity represent key elements limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. Thus, developing crop plants with the ability to tolerate abiotic stresses is a critical need which demands modern novel strategies for the thorough understanding of plant response to abiotic stresses. Crop Improvement under Adverse Conditions will serve as a cutting-edge resource for researchers and students alike who are studying plant abiotic stress tolerance and crop improvement. The book presents the latest trends and developments in the field, including the impact of extreme events on salt tolerant forest species of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, the overlapping horizons of salicylic acid in different stresses, and fast and reliable approaches to crop improvement through In Vitro haploid production. Written by renowned experts and featuring useful illustrations and photographs, Crop Improvement under Adverse Conditions is a concise and practical update on plant abiotic stress tolerance and crop improvement.

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 4: Cereals

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 828

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have allowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

Crop Breeding: A Contemporary Basis

Author: P. B. Vose

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 452

View: 448

The aim of this book is to gather together, in an integrated manner, information on the physiology and technology of contemporary plant breeding. The approach is multidisciplinary, with special emphasis being placed on the application of theoretical knowledge to the solution of practical problems concerned with the improvement of crop yield through the breeding of plants better suited to their environment. The role of modern techniques, such as tissue culture and induced mutation are discussed in detail

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Volume 5 — Oil, Ornamental and Miscellaneous Plants

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 414

Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have allowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.

Accelerated Plant Breeding, Volume 1

Cereal Crops

Author: Satbir Singh Gosal

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 479

Plant improvement has shifted its focus from yield, quality and disease resistance to factors that will enhance commerical export, such as early maturity, shelf life and better processing quality. Conventional plant breeding methods aiming at the improvement of a self-pollinating crop, such as wheat, usually take 10-12 years to develop and release of the new variety. During the past 10 years, significant advances have been made and accelerated methods have been developed for precision breeding and early release of crop varieties. This work summarizes concepts dealing with germplasm enhancement and development of improved varieties based on innovative methodologies that include doubled haploidy, marker assisted selection, marker assisted background selection, genetic mapping, genomic selection, high-throughput genotyping, high-throughput phenotyping, mutation breeding, reverse breeding, transgenic breeding, shuttle breeding, speed breeding, low cost high-throughput field phenotyping, etc. It is an important reference with special focus on accelerated development of improved crop varieties.

Cytogenetics of Crop Plants

Author: Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Plant breeding

Page: 591

View: 997

Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants, Volume 1

Innovations, Methods and Risk Assessment

Author: Aditya Pratap

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 424

Genetic engineering and biotechnology along with conventional breeding have played an important role in developing superior cultivars by transferring economically important traits from distant, wild and even unrelated species to the cultivated varieties which otherwise could not have been possible with conventional breeding. There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to the genetic improvement of crops over last few decades. However, the wonderful results achieved by crop scientists in food legumes’ research and development over the years are scattered in different journals of the World. The two volumes in the series ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants’ address this issue and offer a comprehensive reference on the developments made in major food crops of the world. These volumes aim at bringing the contributions from globally renowned scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly manner. The 1st volume entitled, ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants: Innovations, Methods and Risk Assessment” will deal exclusively with the process and methodology. The contents of this volume have been designed to appraise the readers with all the theoretical and practical aspects of wide hybridization and gene transfer like processes and methods of gene transfer, role of biotechnology with special reference to embryo rescue, genetic transformation, protoplast fusion and molecular marker technology, problems such as cross incompatibility and barriers to distant hybridization and solutions to overcome them. Since wild and weedy relatives of crop plants may have negative traits associated with them, there are always possibilities of linkage drag while transferring alien alleles. Therefore, problems and limitations of alien gene transfer from these species will also be discussed in this series. Further, the associated risks with this and assessment of risks will also be given due weightage.

Plant Biology and Biotechnology

Volume II: Plant Genomics and Biotechnology

Author: Bir Bahadur

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 768

View: 288

Plant genomics and biotechnology have recently made enormous strides, and hold the potential to benefit agriculture, the environment and various other dimensions of the human endeavor. It is no exaggeration to claim that the twenty-first century belongs to biotechnology. Knowledge generation in this field is growing at a frenetic pace, and keeping abreast of the latest advances and calls on us to double our efforts. Volume II of this two-part series addresses cutting-edge aspects of plant genomics and biotechnology. It includes 37 chapters contributed by over 70 researchers, each of which is an expert in his/her own field of research. Biotechnology has helped to solve many conundrums of plant life that had long remained a mystery to mankind. This volume opens with an exhaustive chapter on the role played by thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, which is believed to be the Drosophila of the plant kingdom and an invaluable model plant for understanding basic concepts in plant biology. This is followed by chapters on bioremediation, biofuels and biofertilizers through microalgal manipulation, making it a commercializable prospect; discerning finer details of biotic stress with plant-fungal interactions; and the dynamics of abiotic and biotic stresses, which also figure elsewhere in the book. Breeding crop plants for desirable traits has long been an endeavor of biotechnologists. The significance of molecular markers, marker assisted selection and techniques are covered in a dedicated chapter, as are comprehensive reviews on plant molecular biology, DNA fingerprinting techniques, genomic structure and functional genomics. A chapter dedicated to organellar genomes provides extensive information on this important aspect. Elsewhere in the book, the newly emerging area of epigenetics is presented as seen through the lens of biotechnology, showcasing the pivotal role of DNA methylation in effecting permanent and transient changes to the genome. Exclusive chapters deal with bioinformatics and systems biology. Handy tools for practical applications such as somatic embryogenesis and micropropagation are included to provide frontline information to entrepreneurs, as is a chapter on somaclonal variation. Overcoming barriers to sexual incompatibility has also long been a focus of biotechnology, and is addressed in chapters on wide hybridization and hybrid embryo rescue. Another area of accomplishing triploids through endosperm culture is included as a non-conventional breeding strategy. Secondary metabolite production through tissue cultures, which is of importance to industrial scientists, is also covered. Worldwide exchange of plant genetic material is currently an essential topic, as is conserving natural resources in situ. Chapters on in vitro conservation of extant, threatened and other valuable germplasms, gene banking and related issues are included, along with an extensive account of the biotechnology of spices – the low-volume, high-value crops. Metabolic engineering is another emerging field that provides commercial opportunities. As is well known, there is widespread concern over genetically modified crops among the public. GM crops are covered, as are genetic engineering strategies for combating biotic and abiotic stresses where no other solutions are in sight. RNAi- and micro RNA- based strategies for crop improvement have proved to offer novel alternatives to the existing non-conventional techniques, and detailed information on these aspects is also included. The book’s last five chapters are devoted to presenting the various aspects of environmental, marine, desert and rural biotechnology. The state-of-the-art coverage on a wide range of plant genomics and biotechnology topics will be of great interest to post-graduate students and researchers, including the employees of seed and biotechnology companies, and to instructors in the fields of plant genetics, breeding and biotechnology.