This is a book about the tensions and entangled interactions between internationalism and nationalism, and about the effects both had on European scientific and cultural settings from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. From chemistry to philology the essays tackle different historical case studies exploring how the paths taken by science and culture during the period were affected by nationalism and internationalism.
Towards a Neo-Kantian Philosophy of Culture (Cohen, Natorp, and Cassirer)
Author: Sebastian Luft
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Sebastian Luft presents and defends the philosophy of culture championed by the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism. Following a historical trajectory from Hermann Cohen to Paul Natorp and through to Ernst Cassirer, this book makes a systematic case for the viability and attractiveness of a philosophical culture in a transcendental vein, in the manner in which the Marburgers intended to broaden Kant's approach. In providing a philosophical study of culture, Luft adheres to important Kantian tenets while addressing empirical studies of culture. The Space of Culture culminates in an exploration of Cassirer's Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, and argues for the extent to which Cassirer's thought was firmly rooted in the Marburg School, despite his originality. At the same time, it shows how Cassirer opened up the philosophical study of culture to new horizons, making it attractive for contemporary philosophy.
This book explores the main currents of European thought between 1350 and 1992, which it approaches in two principal ways: culture as produced by place and the progressive unmooring of thought from previously set religious and philosophical boundaries. The book reads the period against spatial thought’s history (spatial sciences such as geography or Euclidean geometry) to argue that Europe cannot be understood as a continent in intellectual terms or its history organized with respect to traditional spatial-geographic categories. Instead we need to understand European intellectual history in terms of a culture that defined its own place, as opposed to a place that produced a given culture. It then builds on this idea to argue that Europe’s overweening drive to know more about humanity and the cosmos continually breached the boundaries set by venerable religious and philosophical traditions. In this respect, spatial thought foregrounded the human at the unchanging’s expense, with European thought slowly becoming unmoored, as it doggedly produced knowledge at wisdom’s expense. Michael J. Sauter illustrates this by pursuing historical themes across different chapters, including European thought’s exit from the medieval period, the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment and Romanticism, the Industrial Revolution, and war and culture, offering a thorough overview of European thought during this period. The book concludes by explaining how contemporary culture has forgotten what early modern thinkers such as Michel de Montaigne still knew, namely, that too little skepticism toward one’s own certainties makes one a danger to others. Offering a comprehensive introduction to European thought that stretches from the late fourteenth to the late twentieth century, this is the perfect one-volume study for students of European intellectual history.
Philosophical Investigations in New Media and Technologies
Author: Alberto Romele
This is the first monograph to develop a hermeneutic approach to the digital—as both a technological milieu and a cultural phenomenon. While philosophical in its orientation, the book covers a wide body of literature across science and technology studies, media studies, digital humanities, digital sociology, cognitive science, and the study of artificial intelligence. In the first part of the book, the author formulates an epistemological thesis according to which the “virtual never ended.” Although the frontiers between the real and the virtual are certainly more porous today, they still exist and endure. In the book’s second part, the author offers an ontological reflection on emerging digital technologies as “imaginative machines.” He introduces the concept of emagination, arguing that human schematizations are always externalized into technologies, and that human imagination has its analog in the digital dynamics of articulation between databases and algorithms. The author takes an ethical and political stance in the concluding chapter. He resorts to the notion of "digital habitus" for claiming that within the digital we are repeatedly being reconducted to an oversimplified image and understanding of ourselves. Digital Hermeneutics will be of interest to scholars across a wide range of disciplines, including those working on philosophy of technology, hermeneutics, science and technology studies, media studies, and the digital humanities.
Dismissed by some as the last of the anti-Darwinians, his fame as a rigorous biologist even tainted by an alleged link to National Socialist ideology, it is undeniable that Jakob von Uexküll (1864-1944) was eagerly read by many philosophers across the spectrum of philosophical schools, from Scheler to Merleau-Ponty and Deleuze and from Heidegger to Blumenberg and Agamben. What has then allowed his name to survive the misery of history as well as the usually fatal gap between science and humanities? This collection of essays attempts for the first time to do justice to Uexküll’s theoretical impact on Western culture. By highlighting his importance for philosophy, the book aims to contribute to the general interpretation of the relationship between biology and philosophy in the last century and explore the often neglected connection between continental philosophy and the sciences of life. Thanks to the exploration of Uexküll’s conceptual legacy, the origins of cybernetics, the overcoming of metaphysical dualisms, and a refined understanding of organisms appear variedly interconnected. Uexküll’s background and his relevance in current debates are thoroughly examined as to appeal to undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as postdoctoral researchers in fields such as history of the life sciences, philosophy of biology, critical animal studies, philosophical anthropology, biosemiotics and biopolitics.
Addressing Heidegger's continuing centrality to continental thought, Markus Weidler argues that Heidegger's prickly charm is best explained in terms of his great ingenuity, crafting a novel genre of writing which promises to harness the revelatory power of artworks for the purpose of philosophical inquiry. In doing so, Heidegger challenges the reader with a provocative form of artisan thinking, which for Weidler is central to understanding the significance of Heidegger's work overall. In Vorträge und Aufsätze (Public Lectures and Essays) Heidegger declares: 'once it has become anthropology, philosophy perishes from metaphysics.' Remarks critical of 'philosophical anthropology' are scattered throughout his writings, but so far commentators have not connected these tantalizing statements in any systematic way. This book deals with his hostility by addressing what we are to make of Heidegger's frequent but elusive dismissals of philosophical anthropology as a field of study. This examination of Heidegger's complex relation to philosophical anthropology traces how pioneering thinkers like Schelling and Schiller paved the way not only for Heidegger but also for some of his potential competitors, most notably Max Scheler and Georg Simmel. Weidler argues that confronting the puzzle over Heidegger's peculiar relation to philosophical anthropology is also one of the keys to explaining his popularity as a philosopher, which has endured despite revelations of his various personal and political failings.
Dieser Band vereinigt die Beiträge einer im Juni 2013 am Institut Wiener Kreis der Universität Wien stattgefundenen Tagung, deren Ziel es gewesen ist, die Rolle Diltheys als Wissenschaftsphilosoph zu beleuchten, vor dem Hintergrund der in den letzten Jahrzehnten in der Dilthey-Forschung erarbeiteten Befunde, die Dilthey tendenziell von dem Bild einer rein "kontinentalen" Philosophie der Hermeneutik des Lebens weg gerückt haben.
Gustav Theodor Fechner and His Psychophysical Worldview
Author: Michael Heidelberger
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
"In Nature from Within, Michael Heidelberger examines Fechner and his work from three perspectives: history, philosophy, and what Fechner called his "day view" approach to study across fields. Along with biographical information and a characterization of Fechner's writings, Heidelberger begins by describing Fechner's background with respect to intellectual history. He then focuses on Fechner's philosophy of science and on the philosopher's efforts to demonstrate that science could accept the identity of the psychical and the physical in an empirically clear and phenomenological interpretation. The book closes with a discussion of the significance of Fechner's philosophical methodology for branches of natural science and their respective underlying philosophies."--BOOK JACKET.
Hermeneutic philosophies of social science offer an approach to the philosophy of social science foregrounding the human subject and including attention to history as well as a methodological reflection on the notion of reflection, including the intrusions of distortions and prejudice. Hermeneutic philosophies of social science offer an explicit orientation to and concern with the subject of the human and social sciences. Hermeneutic philosophies of the social science represented in the present collection of essays draw inspiration from Gadamer’s work as well as from Paul Ricoeur in addition to Michel de Certeau and Michel Foucault among others. Special attention is given to Wilhelm Dilthey in addition to the broader phenomenological traditions of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger as well as the history of philosophy in Plato and Descartes. The volume is indispensible reading for students and scholars interested in epistemology, philosophy of science, social social studies of knowledge as well as social studies of technology.
Science Studies in the German Democratic Republic Papers from a German-American Summer Institute, 1988
Author: W.R. Woodward
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The various efforts to develop a Marxist philosophy of science in the one time 'socialist' countries were casualties of the Cold War. Even those who were in no way Marxists, and those who were undogmatic in their Marxisms, now confront a new world. All the more harsh is it for those who worked within the framework imposed upon professional philosophy by the official ideology. Here in this book, we are concerned with some 31 colleagues from the late German Democratic Republic, representative in their scholarship of the achievements of a curiously creative while dismayingly repressive period. The literature published in the GDR was blossoming, certainly in the final decade, but it developed within a totalitarian regime where personal careers either advanced or faltered through the private protection or denunciation of mentors. We will never know how many good minds did not enter the field of philosophy in the first place due to their prudent judgments that there was a virtual requirement that the candidate join the Socialist Unity (i.e. Communist) Party. Among those who started careers and were sidetracked, the record is now beginning to be revealed; and for the rest, the price of 'doing philosophy' was mostly silence in the face of harassments the likes of which make academic politics in the West seem child's play.
Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse in Natur-, Ingenieur- und Geisteswissenschaft
Author: Torsten Rossmann
Category: Technology & Engineering
In vielen Wissenschafts- und Technikzweigen ist der praktische Nutzen der Bionik anerkannt. Die Lösung technischer Probleme mit Hilfe biologisch motivierter Prinzipien wird erfolgreich praktiziert. Außen vor blieb jedoch bisher die Verständigung zwischen den beteiligten Wissenschaftszweigen. Dieses Buch gibt einen aktuellen Überblick über die unterschiedlichen Forschungsfelder, angefangen von Optimierungsstrategien in der Robotik über Adaptive Beinprothesen, Informationsverarbeitung in natürlichen und künstlichen Systemen, Optimierungsstrategien in der Industrie bis hin zu Philosophischen Aspekten der Bionik. Somit unterstützt es erstmals einen Diskurs zwischen den Disziplinen und ermöglicht einen Austausch zwischen Forschern unterschiedlicher Fachgebiete. Die Beiträge sind allgemein verständlich geschrieben und wagen einen Blick in die Zukunft spannender Forschungsaufgaben.
Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
Wechselwirkungen zwischen Psychologiegeschichte, politischer Geschichte, Sozial-, Kultur- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte für Länder Europas und Nordamerikas werden thematisiert. Die Beiträge dokumentieren Vielfalt und Wandel der Psychologie in Forschung und Praxis im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Die Wandlungen betreffen die Auswirkungen von Machtverhältnissen, politischen Entscheidungen und gesellschaftlichen Umbrüchen auf nationale und regionale Psychologieentwicklungen, die Einflüsse von Wissenschaftskulturen und gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen, die Wandlungen im Gegenstands- und Methodenverständnis sowie die Psychologieentwicklungen durch Wissenstransfer. Der thematischen Vielfalt entspricht eine paradigmatische Vielfalt der angewandten Forschungsstrategien im Sinne einer polyzentrischen Psychologiegeschichtsforschung.
Available on its own, or as part of a two-volume set, this German-English dictionary is the first comprehensive work in the field and an indispensible companion for students, academics, translators and linguists concerned with almost any area of philosophy.