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Thanks to new, improving experimental techniques, modern biology is discovering a steadily growing body of new facts and data about the living nature. A good example of this advancement is the decryption of the complete genome of a rapidly increasing number of organisms, including humans. Regardless of these impressive results, however, there are still no satisfying answers to very basic questions of biology, such as "What is life?" and "Why does matter organize into biological forms that become more complex in the course of evolution?". The Interaction Theory by Michael J. Ruf assumes that this unsatisfying situation is not simply the consequence that certain experimental data are still missing. The lack of explanation of what life is actually and why simple molecules evolve into complex organisms rather reflects an existing conceptual problem that can only be solved with a radically new conceptual approach. Interaction Theory is the result of such a radically new approach to life and evolution. In contrast to conventional evolutionary theory, the generation sequences of living forms are considered to be the decisive quality of life. By clarifying how the continuation of these generation sequences can be sustainable over billions of years, new fundamental principles become obvious and the phenomenon of an increasing biological complexity understandable. As a result, a law-like process of biological complexity increase can be derived as immanent part of the evolution of life. This allows Interaction Theory to provide new answers to key questions such as why sexual reproduction, what species are and what life is. The theory is, however, not limited to cells and organisms and their evolution. It addresses the self-organization to higher complexity of all kinds of structures that are subject to an evolution through multiplication processes. This means that Interaction Theory also provides an understanding of why and how molecular networks, social communities and even societies become more complex over time.
Bipolar complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (BiCMOS) processes can be considered as the most general solution for RF products, as they combine the mature manufacturing tools of CMOS with the speed and drive capabilities of silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). HBTs in turn are major contenders for partially filling the terahertz gap, which describes the range in which the frequencies generated by transistors and lasers do not overlap (approximately 0.3 THz to 30 THz). To evaluate the capabilities of such future devices, a reliable prediction methodology is desirable. Using a heterogeneous set of simulation tools and approaches allows to achieve this goal successively and is beneficial for troubleshooting. Various scientific fields are combined, such as technology computer-aided design (TCAD), compact modeling and parameter extraction. To create a foundation for the simulation environment and to ensure reproducibility, the used material models of the hydrodynamic and drift-diffusion approaches are introduced in the beginning of this thesis. The physical models are mainly based on literature data of Monte Carlo (MC) or deterministic simulations of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). However, the TCAD deck must be calibrated on measurement data too for a reliable performance prediction of HBTs. The corresponding calibration approach is based on measurements of an advanced SiGe HBT technology for which a technology-specific parameter set of the HICUM/L2 compact model is extracted for the high-speed, medium-voltage and high-voltage transistor versions. With the help of the results, one-dimensional transistor characteristics are generated that serve as reference for the doping profile and model calibration. By performing elaborate comparisons between measurement-based reference data and simulations, the thesis advances the state-of-the-art of TCAD-based predictions and proofs the feasibility of the approach. Finally, the performance of a future technology in 28 nm is predicted by applying the heterogeneous methodology. On the basis of the TCAD results, bottlenecks of the technology are identified.
About the book: Mathematical modeling and computer simulation make it possible to understand and control the dynamic processes taking place in complex systems. Simulation provides insights into the often surprising diversity of possible behaviors, and allows identifying possibilities for intervention and options for alternative development. About one hundred simulation models from all areas of life are fully documented in the three volumes of the 'System Zoo'. They can be quickly implemented and easily operated using freely available system dynamics software. Volume 1 of the System Zoo contains simulation models of elementary processes, and of complex systems from physics and engineering, among them: exponential and logistic growth, oscillations, delays, and storage; phenomena of infection, transition, and overload; complex systems with limit cycles, multiple equilibrium points and chaotic attractors; and applications from control engineering, flight dynamics, fluid flow and heat conduction. The System Zoo collection of simulation models is particularly well-suited for teaching, training, and research projects at all levels from high school to university, and for individual study. Volume 2 of the System Zoo contains simulation models related to climate, vegetation, ecosystems and resources. Volume 3 deals with systems and processes found in economy and society, and with long-term global development. About the author: Hartmut Bossel is Professor Emeritus of environmental systems analysis. He taught for many years at the University of California in Santa Barbara and the University of Kassel, Germany, where he was director of the Center for Environmental Systems Research until his retirement. He holds an engineering degree from the Technical University of Darmstadt, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Berkeley. With a background in engineering, systems science, and mathematical modeling, he has led many research projects and future studies in different countries, developing computer simulation models and decision support systems in the areas of energy supply policy, global dynamics, orientation of behavior, agricultural policy, and forest dynamics and management. He has written numerous books on modeling and simulation of dynamic systems, social change and future paths, and has published widely in the scientific literature in several fields.
Ever since 9/11 the legal classification of transnational conflicts between states and non-state armed groups, such as Al Qaeda, has become a highly debated topic. While repeatedly referred to as the War on Terror, the legal qualification of the conflict between the US and Al Qaeda remains controversial: US military operations in Afghanistan against Al Qaeda and the use of drones against alleged terrorists in Pakistan, Yemen and other states pose the question as to whether this conflict truly qualifies as one single global war. Similarly, transnational conflicts such as the Colombian operation against a FARC base in Ecuador, Israel’s fight against Hezbollah in Lebanon, and Turkish operations against the PKK in northern Iraq pose difficulties as they transcend individual nations˙ political systems and geographical borders. Whether the law of war (i.e. humanitarian law) is applicable to such conflicts and to what extent human rights law binds the states involved is debated. This work aims to provide structure to the current debate and analyzes the applicability of both humanitarian law and human rights law. Furthermore, it examines and explores approaches to enhance and develop the existing legal framework, including proposed new legal regimes for transnational conflicts. The author argues against the strict separation of international humanitarian law and human rights law and instead borrows from Colombian authorities’ experience in their struggle with the FARC to develop an alternate solution, combining both legal regimes in an integrated approach.
About the book: Mathematical modeling and computer simulation make it possible to understand and control the dynamic processes taking place in complex systems. Simulation provides insights into the often surprising diversity of possible behaviors, and allows identifying possibilities for intervention and options for alternative development. About one hundred simulation models from all areas of life are fully documented in the three volumes of the 'System Zoo'. They can be quickly implemented and easily operated using freely available system dynamics software. Volume 3 of the System Zoo contains simulation models of economic and social systems and global development, among them: production, stocks and orders, marketing and consumption, competition, life planning, employment, ecotax, escalation, dependence, aggression, population and community development, debt crisis, globalization, the world models of the Club of Rome (by Forrester and the Meadows group) and examples of nonnumerical knowledge processing applied to impact assessment and decision processes. The System Zoo collection of simulation models is particularly well-suited for teaching, training, and research projects at all levels from high school to university, and for individual study. Volume 1 of the System Zoo contains simulation models of elementary systems, and of systems from the fields of physics and engineering. Volume 2 of the System Zoo presents simulation models related to climate, vegetation, ecosystems and resources. About the author: Hartmut Bossel is Professor Emeritus of environmental systems analysis. He taught for many years at the University of California in Santa Barbara and the University of Kassel, Germany, where he was director of the Center for Environmental Systems Research until his retirement. He holds an engineering degree from the Technical University of Darmstadt, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Berkeley. With a background in engineering, systems science, and mathematical modeling, he has led many research projects and future studies in different countries, developing computer simulation models and decision support systems in the areas of energy supply policy, global dynamics, orientation of behavior, agricultural policy, and forest dynamics and management. He has written numerous books on modeling and simulation of dynamic systems, social change and future paths, and has published widely in the scientific literature in several fields.
This compact book contains all the official International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Accounting Standards (IAS) and Interpretations (SICs, IFRICs), approved by the EU and thus mandatory for companies operating in capital markets. The standards are listed synoptically in English and German, allowing a comparison with the English original, which is important in questions of interpretation. A handy reference for accountants, tax advisors, IFRS consultants, and companies applying IFRS. Can only be sold within the EU.
This comprehensive and systematic text book provides teachers and students alike with a profound, yet concise reference for the analysis of narrative texts. It provides appropriate and differentiated terminological and methodological tools to all the questions that arise when analyzing a narrative text. An advantage of this textbook is that the narrative theory models and concepts are presented in understandable and operational analytical categories and parameters and illustrated by tables and matrices to help make the sophisticated analysis easier to understand and memorize. Exemplary model analyses are provided to present and test the performance of this method.This book is valuable not only to literary scholars but is also suitable to teachers and students.Lehrende und Studierende, die einen Erzähltext analysieren wollen, finden in diesem umfassenden, systematischen, profunden und zugleich übersichtlichen Lehrbuch und Nachschlagewerk ein geeignetes und differenziertes terminologisches und methodisches Instrumentarium, um alle Fragen, die bei der Analyse eines Erzähltextes auftauchen, beantworten zu können. Ein Vorzug des vorliegenden Handbuches besteht darin, dass die erzähltheoretischen Modelle und Konzepte in verständliche und operative analytische Kategorien und Parameter umgesetzt und durch Tabellen, Matrizen und graphische Darstellung veranschaulicht werden, um die anspruchsvollen analytischen Raster besser fass- und memorierbar zu machen. In exemplarischen Musteranalysen wird die Leistungsfähigkeit der vorliegenden Erzähltextanalyse erprobt. Das Buch wendet sich nicht nur an Literaturwissenschaftler, sondern ist auch für Lehrkräfte und Schüler geeignet
Origin, Meaning, and Use of Terms and Expressions in Everyday University Life
Author: Albrecht Behmel
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Foreign Language Study
Figuring out the many new terms confronting international students at German-language universities can be difficult. Even if the degree program is in English, most administrative work has to be done in German, and the bureaucratic university jargon is a language in and of itself. This guide aims to help international students and researchers understand the structures and organization of German universities by providing in-depth descriptions of terms and their origins, allowing for easier integration into the host university and its culture.
There are certain parallels between the operations Vladimir Putin initiated in the wake of the Ukraine crisis of 2014 and the approach Stalin took in the region during the Second World War.Stalin's ruthless use of scorched earth tactics, the deliberate provocation of reprisals of the occupiers against the civilian population, the destruction of their own villages, the chaotic collection of taxes in kind from the population, accompanied by everyday looting, benders, fornication and violence, fratricidal internal conflicts, the use of doping, the operational use of bacteriological weapons, and even cannibalism -- all this was not a random price for the massive bloodshed and no spontaneous response of the population to the brutality of the German occupation in the 1940s. These were, as Alexander Gogun shows in his historiographical investigation, planned or consciously accepted phenomena and peculiarities of Stalin's warfare tactics.A book that makes an important contribution to the historical context of the current crisis in Ukraine.Es finden sich Parallelen zwischen den von Wladimir Putin im Zuge der Ukraine-Krise 2014 initiierten Operationen in der Ukraine und dem dortigen Vorgehen Stalins während des zweiten Weltkriegs. Stalins rücksichtslose Anwendung der Taktik der verbrannten Erde, das absichtliche Provozieren von Repressalien der Besatzer gegen die Zivilisten, die Vernichtung eigener Dörfer, die chaotische Eintreibung von Naturalsteuern von der Bevölkerung, begleitet von alltäglichen Plünderungen, Besäufnissen, Unzucht und Gewalt, brudermörderische innere Konflikte, die Benutzung von Doping, der operative Einsatz bakteriologischer Waffen und sogar Kannibalismus -- all das war in den 1940er Jahren kein zufälliger Preis für das massenhafte Blutvergießen und auch keine spontane Antwort des Volkes auf die Brutalität der deutschen Besatzungsherrschaft. Dies waren, wie Alexander Gogun in seiner vorliegenden historiographischen Untersuchung aufzeigt, geplante oder bewusst in Kauf genommene Erscheinungen und Besonderheiten der Kriegsführung Stalins.Ein Buch, das einen wichtigen Beitrag zur historischen Einordnung der aktuellen Ukraine-Krise leistet.
Since 1997, FORUM is an integral part of the journal landscape of European Studies. In addition to facts of contemporary history, it offers deep insights into the history of ideas, reflects current discussions, and provides reviews of books on Central and Eastern European history. Especially on the history of ideas and contemporary history it offers more than ?just? history -- e.g. interdisciplinary discussions by political scientists, literary, legal, and economic scholars and philosophers. FORUM sees itself as a bridge between East and West. Through the translation and publication of documents and contributions from Russian, Polish, and Czech researchers it offers the Western reader insight into the scientific discourse within Eastern Europe.Volume 18, Issue 1: The way the Federal Republic of Germany dealt with its past is seen by some as a role model for many post-authoritarian and post-totalitarian transition countries in East and West, despite some downsides of the long process of coping with the past after the German ?zero hour?. The current FORUM issue focuses on the comparison of the specifics of German memory culture with those of the Eastern European countries, especially Poland and Russia, since the beginning of their de-Stalinization debates.Seit 1997 ist das FORUM fester Bestandteil der Zeitschriftenlandschaft der Osteuropaforschung. Neben Fakten der Zeitgeschichte bietet es tiefe Einblicke in die Ideengeschichte, spiegelt aktuelle Diskussionen wider und liefert Rezensionen zu Werken der mittel- und osteuropäischen Zeitgeschichte. Gerade in den Rubriken Ideengeschichte und Zeitgeschichte bietet es mehr als "nur" Geschichte -- fächerübergreifend kommen u.a. Politologen, Literatur-, Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftler sowie Philosophen zu Wort. Das FORUM versteht sich als Brücke zwischen Ost und West. Durch die Übersetzung und Veröffentlichung von Dokumenten und Beiträgen aus dem Russischen, Polnischen und Tschechischen bietet es dem westlichen Leser Einblicke in den wissenschaftlichen Diskurs Osteuropas. Heft 1/2014: Der lange Abschied vom totalitären Erbe Das Modell der bundesrepublikanischen Vergangenheitsbewältigung gilt als Vorbild für viele postautoritäre bzw. posttotalitäre Transformationsstaaten in Ost und West, ungeachtet mancher Schattenseiten des langwierigen Prozesses der deutschen Vergangenheitsbewältigung nach der "Stunde Null". Das aktuelle Forum-Heft vergleicht in seinem thematischen Schwerpunkt die Spezifika der deutschen Erinnerungskultur mit denjenigen der osteuropäischen Länder, vor allem Polens und Russlands, seit dem Beginn der Entstalinisierungsdebatten.
The European Dimension, Domestic and Foreign Politics and Transnational Dynamics
Author: Ebru Turhan
Publisher: Nomos Verlag
Category: Political Science
In den letzten Jahren ist der deutsch-türkische Dialog zunehmend Gegenstand politischer, akademischer und öffentlicher Debatten geworden. Die Entwicklung der bilateralen Beziehungen zwischen den beiden Ländern war geprägt von Höhen und Tiefen. In jüngster Zeit überwiegen jedoch die Konfliktphasen: Entfremdung und gegenseitiges Misstrauen zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei nehmen zu. Endet die "Achterbahnfahrt" in den vielschichtigen und dynamischen Beziehungen zwischen beiden Ländern womöglich in einem Unglück? Ausgehend von den "intermestischen" (inter-lokalen) Tendenzen und den außergewöhnlichen Interdependenzen in den deutsch-türkischen Beziehungen beleuchtet dieser Band die Potenziale für zukünftige Kooperationen und Konflikte. Im Zentrum stehen die drei Dimensionen der deutsch-türkischen Beziehungen, die sich insbesondere auf konfliktreichen oder kooperativen Dialog beziehen: die europäische Dimension, die Innen- und Außenpolitik sowie transnationale Dynamiken. Mit Beiträgen von Mirja Schröder, Funda Tekin, Ebru Turhan, Thomas Krumm, Ludwig Schulz, Yaşar Aydın, Deniz Kuru, Defne Kadıoğlu Polat, Çetin Çelik, Elif Posos Devrani und Wolfgang Wessels
Immer mehr mittelständische Unternehmen sind sich der Vorteile von Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) bewusst. Dieses Buch konzentriert sich auf den deutschen Mittelstand, der als Vorbild für andere Volkswirtschaften gilt. Der Fokus liegt insbesondere auf der Entwicklung des CSR-Engagements und den sich daraus ergebenden Trends, die bei der Implementierung von CSR hilfreich sein können. Das große Interesse an diesem Thema führt zur Notwendigkeit eines strukturierten CSR-Ansatzes. Aus diesem Grund bietet dieses Buch einen umfassenden Überblick über wichtige theoretische Konzepte, eine Analyse der CSR-Entwicklung im deutschen Mittelstand und strategische Überlegungen für eine erfolgreiche CSR-Umsetzung. Mit einem Vorwort von Olga Kuznetsova.
“What does the landscape architect actually do as a design?” The authors investigate this seemingly simple question. What resources are available for designing open spaces? What part is played by conditions deriving from nature? How are locations and spaces created in the open air, how are paths routed and boundaries set, how are hard and soft materials used? Drawing on practical and theoretical experience, this introduction, often used as a textbook, reveals the central components of design and the intellectual paths followed in the design process. “The book is not so much for reading but for doing. It plays with shapes, imagining how people feel in these shapes and seeing how shapes create a different experience of landscape. Vegetation can make the relief of a hill clearer, less clear, indistinct or hidden. The authors show this by sketches illustrating the text ... As an example of the way Loidl and Bernard set their readers thinking for themselves, I quote what they regard as good design: ‘The paradox of a good design solution: more uniformity needs more variety.’Food for thought. Or read Open(ing) Spaces.” (Martin Woestenburg in 'scape, 2006)
F. Babinger, biographer of Isaak Jakob Schmidt (1779-1847), the founder of Mongolian Studies, lists "Two Little Christian Tracts" among his early publications in Mongolian; no later Mongolist apparently ever saw or described this booklet published in 1818. A probably unique copy came to light in the Library of the German Oriental Society and was transcribed and translated by Charles Bawden who is known for his careful studies of Christian missions among the Mongols. The printed text is given in facsimile. A detailed commentary analyzes the text and traces the inconsistent Christian terminology which was apparently still in an experimental stage. Schmidt's Mongolian assistants, Badma and Nomtu, were probably mainly responsible for the translation. A preface informs about the versatile printer N. Grec while an appendix gives mission reports and a related Mongolian correspondence in contemporary German paraphrase.
Self, Death, and God after Kierkegaard and Derrida
Author: Marius Timmann Mjaaland
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Kierkegaard and Derrida are two of the most influential thinkers of late modernity. Without reducing the difference between philosophy and religion, they both analyze the fundamental questions of human existence: How a human being relates to itself, to death, and to God. In Autopsia, the Norwegian scholar Marius Timmann Mjaaland has analyzed texts by Kierkegaard and Derrida, focusing on their rationality as well as on their content. The result is a far-reaching analysis of how philosophy may approach religious topics without reducing their inherent logos to the supposed universality of human reason.
Innovative Approaches in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Arab Region
Author: Kosta Mathéy
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Category: Social Science
Urban violence has become a major threat in big cities of the world. Where the orthodox protection through the police and individual target hardening remain inefficient, the population must organize itself. This book contains first-hand accounts on a selection of the most innovative experiences in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Arab region and is of interest likewise for academics and urban practitioners, policy makers, international cooperation experts or travelers preparing a visit of one of the affected countries. With a preface by Caroline Moser.
Université libre de Bruxelles. Centre d'études canadiennes
Author: Université libre de Bruxelles. Centre d'études canadiennes
Publisher: Peter Lang
Category: Literary Criticism
This volume offers challenging assessments of the reconfigurations that have shaped Anglophone and Francophone Canadian literatures in the last decades of the twentieth century. Focusing on the pursuit of an ever-elusive «Canadianness» in literary texts, it documents the astonishing range of Canadian diasporic identities that have recently emerged in the Canadian literary landscape. The contributors to this volume boldly transgress the widely held critical assumptions of postcolonialism in their examination of the literary representations of contemporary Canada's many «Others». Ce volume rassemble nombre d'analyses innovatrices des reconfigurations qui ont caractérisé les littératures canadiennes anglophones et francophones durant les dernières décennies du vingtième siècle. Tout en se concentrant sur la quête de l'insaisissable «Canadianité» en littérature, l'ouvrage démontre l'étonnante diversité des identités diasporiques qui ont récemment émergé dans le paysage littéraire canadien. Les contributeurs de ce volume transgressent audacieusement les certitudes généralement acquises du postcolonialisme afin de mieux décrire les représentations littéraires des nombreux «Autres» du Canada actuel.