This second edition features new chapters highlighting advances in our understanding of the behavior and properties of scintillators, and the discovery of new families of materials with light yield and excellent energy resolution very close to the theoretical limit. The book focuses on the discovery of next-generation scintillation materials and on a deeper understanding of fundamental processes. Such novel materials with high light yield as well as significant advances in crystal engineering offer exciting new perspectives. Most promising is the application of scintillators for precise time tagging of events, at the level of 100 ps or higher, heralding a new era in medical applications and particle physics. Since the discovery of the Higgs Boson with a clear signature in the lead tungstate scintillating blocks of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter detector, the current trend in particle physics is toward very high luminosity colliders, in which timing performance will ultimately be essential to mitigating pile-up problems. New and extremely fast light production mechanisms based on Hot-Intraband-Luminescence as well as quantum confinement are exploited for this purpose. Breakthroughs such as crystal engineering by means of co-doping procedures and selection of cations with small nuclear fragmentation cross-sections will also pave the way for the development of more advanced and radiation-hard materials. Similar innovations are expected in medical imaging, nuclear physics ecology, homeland security, space instrumentation and industrial applications. This second edition also reviews modern trends in our understanding and the engineering of scintillation materials. Readers will find new and updated references and information, as well as new concepts and inspirations to implement in their own research and engineering endeavors.
Versatile Particle Detectors for High-Rate Applications
Author: Jonathan Bortfeldt
This book discusses a novel and high-rate-capable micro pattern gaseous detector of the Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GAS detector) type. It provides a detailed characterization of the performance of Micromegas detectors on the basis of measurements and simulations, along with an in-depth examination of analysis and reconstruction methods. The accurate and efficient detection of minimum ionizing particles in high-rate background environments is demonstrated. The excellent performance determined here for these lightweight detectors will make possible the live medical imaging of a patient during ion-beam treatment.
The book provides a comprehensive guide to the construction, operation, diagnostics, and applications of electron impact ion sources for the production of highly charged ions. Beside the treatment of elementary processes and ion storage in electron impact ion sources, characteristic diagnostic methods for these sources are described which are related to plasma diagnostics. Related to atomic and solid state physics the use of electron impact ion sources is discussed. Diese Monographie behandelt den Aufbau, den Betrieb, die Diagnostik und Anwendungen von Elektronenstoß-Ionenquellen zur Erzeugung hochgeladener Ionen. Neben der Behandlung von Basisprozessen in den Quellen erfolgt eine umfangreiche Beschreibung von Diagnostikmethoden mit Relevanz zur Ionenquellen- und Plasmadiagnostik.
This book deals with the principal areas of activity in radiation physics. Although the basic descriptions of theory and practice are presented in a format which is suitable mainly as a revision text for undergraduate and postgraduate students, the book also serves as an introduction to the field which will be of interest to other informed workers. Detailed treatment is foregone in the interests of a comprehensive survey.The book has evolved from lectures given in the University of London MSc course on radiation physics, and from undergraduate lectures given at Queen Mary and Westfield College. Industrial as well as medical aspects of the field are considered. remove /a remove
This well-known introductory textbook gives a uniform presentation of nuclear and particle physics from an experimental point of view. The first part, Analysis, is devoted to disentangling the substructure of matter. This part shows that experiments designed to uncover the substructures of nuclei and nucleons have a similar conceptual basis, and lead to the present picture of all matter being constructed from a small number of elementary building blocks and a small number of fundamental interactions. The second part, Synthesis, shows how the elementary particles may be combined to build hadrons and nuclei. The fundamental interactions, which are responsible for the forces in all systems, become less and less evident in increasingly complex systems. Such systems are in fact dominated by many-body phenomena. A section on neutrino oscillations and one on nuclear matter at high temperatures bridge the field of "nuclear and particle physics" and "modern astrophysics and cosmology". The fourth edition includes new developments, in particular a new section on the double beta decay including a discussion of the possibility for a neutrinoless decay and its implications for the standard model. The concise text is based on lectures held at the University of Heidelberg. It has been translated into many languages and has become a standard reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and includes numerous exercises with worked answers. Book jacket.