On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict
Author: Bradley A. Thayer
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Category: Political Science
Pathbreaking and controversial, Darwin and International Relations offers the first comprehensive analysis of international affairs of state through the lens of evolutionary theory. Bradley A. Thayer provides a new method for investigating and explaining human and state behavior while generating insights into the origins of human and animal warfare, ethnic conflict, and the influence of disease on international relations. Using ethnological and statistical studies of warfare among tribal societies, Thayer argues that humans wage war for reasons predicted by evolutionary theory -- to gain and protect vital resources but also for the physically and emotionally stimulating effects of combat. Thayer demonstrates that an evolutionary understanding of disease will become a more important part of the study of international relations as new strains of diseases emerge and advances in genetics make biological warfare a more effective weapon for states and terrorists. He also explains the deep causes of ethnic conflict by illuminating how xenophobia and ethnocentrism evolved in humans. He notes that these behaviors once contributed to our ancestors' success in radically different environments, but they remain a part of us. Darwin and International Relations makes a major contribution to our understanding of human history and the future of international relations.
This major new Handbook synthesises more than two decades of scholarly research, and provides a comprehensive overview of the field of terrorism studies. The content of the Handbook is based on the responses to a questionnaire by nearly 100 experts from more than 20 countries as well as the specific expertise and experience of the volume editor and the various contributors. Together, they guide the reader through the voluminous literature on terrorism, and propose a new consensus definition of terrorism, based on an extensive review of existing conceptualisations. The work also features a large collection of typologies and surveys a wide range of theories of terrorism. Additional chapters survey terrorist databases and provide a guide to available resources on terrorism in libraries and on the Internet. It also includes the most comprehensive World Directory of Extremist, Terrorist and other Organizations associated with Guerrilla Warfare, Political Violence, Protest and Organized- and Cyber-Crime. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research will be an essential work of reference for students and researchers of terrorism and political violence, security studies, criminology, political science and international relations, and of great interest to policymakers and professionals in the field of counter-terrorism.
Sex and World Peace unsettles a variety of assumptions in political and security discourse, demonstrating that the security of women is a vital factor in the security of the state and its incidence of conflict and war. The authors compare micro-level gender violence and macro-level state peacefulness in global settings, supporting their findings with detailed analyses and color maps. Harnessing an immense amount of data, they call attention to discrepancies between national laws protecting women and the enforcement of those laws, and they note the adverse effects on state security of abnormal sex ratios favoring males, the practice of polygamy, and inequitable realities in family law, among other gendered aggressions. The authors find that the treatment of women informs human interaction at all levels of society. Their research challenges conventional definitions of security and democracy and shows that the treatment of gender, played out on the world stage, informs the true clash of civilizations. In terms of resolving these injustices, the authors examine top-down and bottom-up approaches to healing wounds of violence against women, as well as ways to rectify inequalities in family law and the lack of parity in decision-making councils. Emphasizing the importance of an R2PW, or state responsibility to protect women, they mount a solid campaign against women's systemic insecurity, which effectively unravels the security of all.
The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views
Author: Douglas P. Fry
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Doug Fry brings together leading experts in human behavioral ecology, and evolutionary biology, archeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about conflict and human nature in an evolutionary context.
Peterson's six-volume Graduate and Professional Programs is the trusted source for accurate, up-to-date graduate program information. With complete details on more than 44,000 master, doctoral, and first-professional degree programs in 476 disciplines at more than 2,000 accredited colleges and universities in the U.S. and Canada, this series is the perfect for students, acadmic advisors, administrators, researchers, scholars, professionals, and librarians.
Until recently, the fundamental link between two basic concepts in international law, namely the right to self-help and the obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means, has been neglected in doctrine and practice. The main issue is that international law traditionally recognizes the right of states to safeguard their own rights by resorting to countermeasures as well as the obligation to settle their disputes by accepted and recognized diplomatic and judicial procedures. Both concepts are based on their own merits, which are assumed to be valid in contemporary international law. It is the primary purpose of this study to determine which rules and principles govern the relationship between the two concepts. The book's major findings arise from an analysis of scholarly work, supported by examples from five different case studies. Drawing insights from legal as well as political science, it will be a valuable resource for students, academics and policy makers in international law, international relations and related areas.
Hometown associations and ethnic unions arose in Nigeria after 1910. We know much about their history and activities, but we lack a description of what makes them significant, why they thrive in certain places, and why they endure. This study engages five closely related questions. First, how can we understand the full phenomenon of hometown associations and ethnic unions in their context? Second, how can we best divide the constellation of organizations into taxonomically and analytically useful categories? Third, why do these organizations endure? What do individuals get from participating? How do towns or ethnic groups benefit from having such organizations? Fourth, why are such groups almost wholly absent among people from the northern third of Nigeria? Fifth, how can we relate the groups to the large and growing literature on civil society? In order to answer these questions I review the literature, provide an interpretive history, and analyze recent trends in Nigerian associational life. I also incorporate field observations from Nigeria and the United States.