The major aim of Cyberspace and the State is to provide conceptual orientation on the new strategic environment of the Information Age. It seeks to restore the equilibrium of policy-makers which has been disturbed by recent cyber scares, as well as to bring clarity to academic debate on the subject particularly in the fields of politics and international relations, war and strategic studies. Its main chapters explore the impact of cyberspace upon the most central aspects of statehood and the state system?power, sovereignty, war, and dominion. It is concerned equally with practice as with theory and may be read in that sense as having two halves.
The transnational architecture of global information networks has made territorial borders less significant. Boundaries between spaces are becoming blurred in the evolving information age. But do information and communication technologies networks really lead to a weakening of the nation-state? This volume revisits the 'retreat of the state' thesis and tests its validity in the 21st century. It considers cyberspace as a matter of collective and policy choice, prone to usurpation by governance structures. Governments around the world are already reacting to the information revolution and trying to re-establish their leading role in creating governance regimes for the Information Age. The volume comes at a historical moment when new political dynamics are detected and new conceptual models are sought to categorize the attempts to deal with global/transnational issues. It will intrigue the reader with expert-level analysis of the role of the state in the emerging global/supranational governance structures by providing historical context and conceptualizing trends and social dynamics.
NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
This book examines cyberspace superiority in nation-state conflict from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. This volume analyses superiority concepts from the domains of land, maritime, and air to build a model that can be applied to cyberspace. Eight different cyberspace conflicts between nation states are examined and the resulting analysis is combined with theoretical concepts to present the reader with a conclusion. Case studies include the conflict between Russia and Estonia (2007), North Korea and the US and South Korea (2009) and Saudi Arabia and Iran in the Aramco attack (2012). The book uses these case studies to examine cyberspace superiority as an analytical framework to understand conflict in this domain between nation-states. Furthermore, the book makes the important distinction between local and universal domain superiority, and presents a unique model to relate this superiority in all domains, as well as a more detailed model of local superiority in cyberspace. Through examining the eight case studies, the book develops a rigorous system to measure the amount of cyberspace superiority achieved by a combatant in a conflict, and seeks to reveal if cyberspace superiority proves to be a significant advantage for military operations at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. This book will be of much interest to students of cyber-conflict, strategic studies, national security, foreign policy and IR in general.
This compact, highly engaging book examines the international legal regulation of both the conduct of States among themselves and conduct towards individuals, in relation to the use of cyberspace. Chapters introduce the perspectives of various stakeholders and the challenges for international law. The author discusses State responsibility and key cyberspace rights issues, and takes a detailed look at cyber warfare, espionage, crime and terrorism. The work also covers the situation of non-State actors and quasi-State actors (such as IS, or ISIS, or ISIL) and concludes with a consideration of future prospects for the international law of cyberspace. Readers may explore international rules in the areas of jurisdiction of States in cyberspace, responsibility of States for cyber activities, human rights in the cyber world, permissible responses to cyber attacks, and more. Other topics addressed include the rules of engagement in cyber warfare, suppression of cyber crimes, permissible limits of cyber espionage, and suppression of cyber-related terrorism. Chapters feature explanations of case law from various jurisdictions, against the background of real-life cyber-related incidents across the globe. Written by an internationally recognized practitioner in the field, the book objectively guides readers through on-going debates on cyber-related issues against the background of international law. This book is very accessibly written and is an enlightening read. It will appeal to a wide audience, from international lawyers to students of international law, military strategists, law enforcement officers, policy makers and the lay person.
Issues of surveillance, control and privacy in relation to the internet are coming to the fore as a result of state concern with security, crime and economic advantage. Through an exploration of emerging debates regarding the possible desirability, form and agencies responsible for the regulation of the internet and an analysis of issues of surveillance, control, rights and privacy, The Governance of Cyberspace develops contemporary theories and considers issues of access, equity and economic advancement. The Governance of Cyberspace encourages a more informed discussion about the nature of the changes which the new information and communications technologies (ICTs) are heralding in and will be of considerable interest to all those who are concerned about the technological shaping of our political future.
Cyberspace has redefined international relations by making person to person contact more immediate in a virtual world. Cyber power has empowered a plethora of actors in cyberspace who want to find independence and freedom from the state control. Such anarchical claims of many individuals and groups in cyberspace, however, have proven unrealistic before the state's presence. The state has encountered cyberspace by extending its power of governance to the Internet. All the states in the world use some form of control in their cyberspaces using one or many mechanisms of cyber regulation. China and Sri Lanka are two vivid examples for political control of the Internet. These states have perceived cyberspace activism and politics as a threat to their national security and sovereignty. China has increased the state control by going to the extreme of banning search engines such as the Google. Sri Lanka fights a war in cyberspace against Diaspora Tamils uprooted from their homeland. This book examines China s panoptical surveillance of cyberspace and Sri Lanka s counter strategy of cyber war against the secessionist LTTE, representing Srilankan Tamils, from a realist perspective.
Security, Law Enforcement, and the Intelligence War in Cyberspace
Author: Musa Khan Jalalzai
Publisher: Algora Publishing
Category: Political Science
Great Britain is in a great crisis, one that gets worse with every attempt to patch things up. The global spread of technology and international links enables a rapid rise in the traffic of dangerous ideas, dangerous materials and dangerous people. An international journalist ties together the common strands that create the fuse for unquenched violence in Great Britain, culminating in a many-faceted crisis for the British state. In response to the uprisings and civil wars sweeping the globe, concerns about possible cyber attacks (State-sponsored or otherwise) on State computers, have been amplified in the media, sparking a debate as to the appropriate course of action. Now citizens understand that their own privacy has been discarded in the name of international security. Cyberspace has become the decisive arena of modern information warfare. The overwhelming picture of intrusion into people's personal lives has caused a breakdown in trust between the citizens and the State, and the State and its Allies. Five Eyes, TEMPORA, PRISM, ECHELON and the politics of the Intelligence War have shaken the public perception that their governments respect civil rights and liberties. Meanwhile the British welfare state faces threats from many quarters. The burning public frustration amounts to a national security crisis, which London addresses primarily through endless new legislation, policies, and strategies statements that create confusion rather than cohesion. Short-term fixes are not enough. Real leadership and real solutions are urgently needed.
The Internet was supposed to be an antidote to authoritarianism. It can enable citizens to express themselves freely and organize outside state control. Yet while online activity has helped challenge authoritarian rule in some cases, other regimes have endured: no movement comparable to the Arab Spring has arisen in China. In Contesting Cyberspace in China, Rongbin Han offers a powerful counterintuitive explanation for the survival of the world’s largest authoritarian regime in the digital age. Han reveals the complex internal dynamics of online expression in China, showing how the state, service providers, and netizens negotiate the limits of discourse. He finds that state censorship has conditioned online expression, yet has failed to bring it under control. However, Han also finds that freer expression may work to the advantage of the regime because its critics are not the only ones empowered: the Internet has proved less threatening than expected due to the multiplicity of beliefs, identities, and values online. State-sponsored and spontaneous pro-government commenters have turned out to be a major presence on the Chinese internet, denigrating dissenters and barraging oppositional voices. Han explores the recruitment, training, and behavior of hired commenters, the “fifty-cent army,” as well as group identity formation among nationalistic Internet posters who see themselves as patriots defending China against online saboteurs. Drawing on a rich set of data collected through interviews, participant observation, and long-term online ethnography, as well as official reports and state directives, Contesting Cyberspace in China interrogates our assumptions about authoritarian resilience and the democratizing power of the Internet.
The Internet, Minority Nationalism, and the Web of Identity
Author: Robert A. Saunders
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Political Science
Ethnopolitics in Cyberspace examines the central role of the Internet in shaping national identity among stateless nations and national minorities in the twenty-first century. By creating new spaces for political discourse, alternative avenues for cultural production, and novel means of social organization, the author argues that the Web is remaking what it means to be part of nation.
Providing comprehensive coverage of cyberspace and cybersecurity, this textbook not only focuses on technologies but also explores human factors and organizational perspectives and emphasizes why asset identification should be the cornerstone of any information security strategy. Topics include addressing vulnerabilities, building a secure enterprise, blocking intrusions, ethical and legal issues, and business continuity. Updates include topics such as cyber risks in mobile telephony, steganography, cybersecurity as an added value, ransomware defense, review of recent cyber laws, new types of cybercrime, plus new chapters on digital currencies and encryption key management.
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, grade: 1.5, The Australian National University, 19 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: 1993 when Ruggie termed the ‘unbundling of territoriality’ was a year in which knowledge and communication that is its accessibility and dissemination entered a new realm of space and time. On the 30th of April 1993 the World Wide Web and its underlying technology was made freely available to use by anyone. Today over one billion people use the Internet, or every sixth person on the planet. A collective brain one might say is forming in front of our eyes growing with every new person entering three W’s into a web browser. While Ruggie aimed to search for, and investigate into, a fundamental transformation of the modern system of states, he emphasized that such an analysis would find a fruitful starting point in the [re]conceptualisation of territoriality. This paper will utilize Ruggie’s concept, by applying its analysis to the emerging and manifesting space-time implosion driven by the Internet and other communication technologies. Therefore, it is argued that Cyberspace provides a practical sphere to investigate into the unbundling of territoriality in a postmodern world. In the first section the impact on territoriality resulting from the emergence of the Cyberspace will be discussed. Ruggie’s model of differentiation between systems of rule and territory is applied to explain the transformation of territory in the postmodern era of Cyberspace. It is followed by an investigation into the consequences of Cyberspace on sovereignty. Showing that Cyberspace does indeed provide a new stage in Ruggie’s terms, facilitating an unbundling and relocation of sovereignty away from state territory. The third section discusses the implication of the virtual space on the rise and acceleration of globalisation. It is argued that globalisation, could not be perceived as a postmodern phenomenon without the Cyberspace revolution. The last part of the paper, proposes the need to rethink the notion of movement in the age of virtual and real spaces. Cyberspace allows ‘tourists’ in line with Bauman’s description to choose between virtual and real movement. The preceding discussion will finally lead to the conclusion that the conceptualisation of Cyberspace as one aspect responsible for the unbundling of territory provides an important explanatory insight into the transformation from modernity to postmodernity.
This authoritative Handbook presents a comprehensive analysis of the spatial transformation of the state; a pivotal process of globalization. It explores the state as an ongoing project that is always changing, illuminating the new spaces of geopolitics that arise from these political, social, cultural, and environmental negotiations.