Written by an engineering consultant with over 48 years of experience in the field, this Second Edition provides a reader-friendly and thorough discussion of the fundamental principles and science of cryogenic engineering including the properties of fluids and solids, refrigeration and liquefaction, insulation, instrumentation, natural gas processi
Written by an engineering consultant with over 48 years of experience in the field, this Second Edition provides a reader-friendly and thorough discussion of the fundamental principles and science of cryogenic engineering including the properties of fluids and solids, refrigeration and liquefaction, insulation, instrumentation, natural gas processing, and safety in cryogenic system design.
Presents applied heat transfer principles in the range of extremely low temperatures. The specific features of heat transfer at cryogenic temperatures, such as variable properties, near critical convection, and Kapitza resistance, are described. This book includes many example problems, in each section, that help to illustrate the applications of the principles presented.
Physics of Cryogenics: An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon discusses the significant number of advances that have been made during the last few years in a variety of cryocoolers, such as Brayton, Joule-Thomson, Stirling, pulse tube, Gifford-McMahon and magnetic refrigerators. The book reviews various approaches taken to improve reliability, a major driving force for new research areas. The advantages and disadvantages of different cycles are compared, and the latest improvements in each of these cryocoolers is discussed. The book starts with the thermodynamic fundamentals, followed by the definition of cryogenic and the associated science behind low temperature phenomena and properties. This book is an ideal resource for scientists, engineers and graduate and senior undergraduate students who need a better understanding of the science of cryogenics and related thermodynamics. Defines the fundamentals of thermodynamics that are associated with cryogenic processes Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology Includes new, low temperature tables written by the author Deals with the application of cryogenics to preserve objects at very low temperature Explains how cryogenic phenomena work for human cell and human body preservations and new medical approaches
Proceedings of the 1958 Cryogenic Engineering Conference
Author: K. D. Timmerhaus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
The National Bureau of Standards Boulder Laboratories was on September 5-7, 1956 again host to a national conference on cryogenic engineering. Supported financially by many of the leading industrial firms currently active in this rapidly expanding field, the conference, second of its kind, attracted more than 400 scientists and engineers from all parts of the world. This attendance was evidence of the present interest and growth in cryogenic engineering, a field which has as yet not found a satisfactory place within the bounds of existing professional societies. In all but two cases the Proceedings contain the summary or entire text of the paper presented at the confer ence. Forty-nine papers were presented at seven separate sessions. These sessions were divided into the following general topics: Cryogenic Processes Cryogenic Equipment Cryogenic Properties Cryogenic Applications Bubble Chambers The division in some cases had to be somewhat arbitrary since several papers could have been classified under more than one general topic. To make the Proceedings more valuable to the reader, an attempt was made to record the general discussion which followed each paper. Unfortunately, however, the recording devices were not sensitive enough for clear reproduction. The discussions, therefore, have not been included in the Proceed ings.
With the 1975 Cryogenic Engineering Conference this se ries enters the third decade of presenting the latest advances in the field of cryogenic engineering. The 1975 Cryogenic Engineering Conference also marked the first time the meeting had been held outside the territorial limits of the United States. Based on the enthusiastic response of the attendees and the exemplary hospitality of the Canadian hosts, it certainly will not be the last meeting to convene beyond the confines of the fifty states. The Cryogenic Engineering Conference Board is extremely grateful to The Royal Military College of Canada and Queen's University for the invitation to hold this meeting in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The assistance of A. C. Leonard and his staff added immeasurably in making this visit to Canada both a pie asant and a memorable one. The 1975 Cryogenic Engineering Conference was the first meeting of this group on the new biennial conference schedule. Since the last conference in 1973, the Western Hemisphere has experienced the impact of various energy shortages. Thus, it was appropriate that the theme "Cryogenics Applied to Natural Resource Management" for this Conference was not only timely but also an opportunity for the scientific community engaged in cryogenic activities to review the role of cryogenics in meeting these new challenges and problems facing the energy-deficient nations of the world. The Cryogenic Engineering Conference was also pleased to have the Interna tional Cryogenic Materials Conference join them in this meeting.
Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet
Author: Peter Hoffmann
Publisher: MIT Press
How the use of nonpolluting, zero-emission hydrogen as fuel could be the cornerstone of a new energy economy. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. An invisible, tasteless, colorless gas, it can be converted to nonpolluting, zero-emission, renewable energy. When burned in an internal combustion engine, hydrogen produces mostly harmless water vapor. It performs even better in fuel cells, which can be 2.5 times as efficient as internal-combustion engines. Zero-emission hydrogen does not contribute to CO2-caused global warming. Abundant and renewable, it is unlikely to be subject to geopolitical pressures or scarcity concerns. In this new edition of his pioneering book Tomorrow's Energy, Peter Hoffmann makes the case for hydrogen as the cornerstone of a new energy economy. Hoffmann covers the major aspects of hydrogen production, storage, transportation, fuel use, and safety. He explains that hydrogen is not an energy source but a carrier, like electricity, and introduces the concept of “hydricity,” the essential interchangeability of electricity and hydrogen. He brings the hydrogen story up to date, reporting on the latest developments, including new hydrogen and fuel-cell cars from GM, Daimler, BMW, Honda, and Toyota. He describes recent political controversies, including Obama administration Energy Secretary (and Nobel laureate in Physics) Steven Chu's inexplicable dismissal of hydrogen—which puts him at odds with major automakers, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and others. Our current energy system is a complex infrastructure, and phasing in hydrogen will take effort and money. But if we consider the real costs of fossil fuels—pollution and its effects, international tensions over gas and oil supplies, and climate change—we would be wise to promote its development.
Transactions of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC: Volume 49A / Volume 49 B
Author: Joseph Waynert
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
All papers have been peer-reviewed. The Cryogenic Engineering Conference covers applications and systems at temperatures where ordinary gases are liquids or solids, generally less than 150 K (-120°C or 185°F). It covers the newest approaches to producing low temperatures and to the use of systems at low temperatures, such as new superconducting magnets, high temperature superconducting electrical power applications, space applications and the properties of fluids and materials at these temperatures. Design, construction, testing, and characterization of cryogenic systems are presented. Topics include: Hydrogen: Past, Present, and Future; Liquefied Natural Gas; Liquid Helium: Refrigeration and Supply; Large Scale Cryogenic Systems; Large Scale Cryogenic Test Facilities; Expanders, Pumps, and Compressors; Large Cryosystem Components and Issues; Cryogenic Instrumentation, Controls, and Measurements; Cryostats: Design and Performance; Cryostates and Cryogenics for Herschel-Planck Mission; Superconducting RF Systems; Thermal Insulation; Material, Property Measurements; Low Temperature Superconducting Magnet Systems; High Temperature Superconducting Magnet Systems; High Temperature Superconducting Cables; High Current Leads; Helium II Phenomena; Fluid Dynamics, Heat Transfer, and Thermodynamics; Cryogenics at Zero G; Cryocooler Programs Overviews; Cryocooler Reliability; Stirling Cryocoolers; Pulse Tube - G-M Type; Pulse Tube JT and Heat Exchanger Modeling and Performance Issues; Brayton, Collins, Sorption Cryocoolers; JT and Thermoacoustic Cryocoolers; Magnetic Refrigeration; Hybrid Cycle Cryocoolers; Terrestrial Applications of Cryocoolers; and Novel Concepts or Devices.
The revised second edition of this practical book reviews the fundamentals of cryogenic liquid behaviour in small and large scale storage systems. The text is based on research findings on the convective and evaporative behaviour of cryogenic fluids, aimed at improving the design, construction and operation of low-loss cryogenic liquid storage systems, with a view to minimising cost and improving operational safety. Since the first edition was published in 2006, the breadth of cryogenic applications and the modelling of cryogenic fluid dynamics (CFD) have expanded in several directions. In this second edition, most chapters have been extended to introduce discussions of these new applications and their safety and energy economy. These include advances in the modelling of CFD required in, for example, the design of miniature cryocoolers and condensers and reboilers, large-scale cryogenic liquid mixture properties and their stability, and the understanding that hazards and safety problems in the public domain increase with the scaling up of cryogenic systems. With helpful summaries at the end of each chapter, the book is an essential reference for anyone working on the design and operation of cryogenic liquid storage and transportation systems.