From the Earth's atmosphere to the edges of our Universe, the presence of dust is ubiquitous. One of the main challenges in studying dust in these various environments is thus to harmonize the diverse research techniques and results, including in-situ measurement, remote observation, laboratory experiments and modelling, and analysis of returned samples. For the first time in over a decade, this volume accomplishes exactly that, providing an overarching picture of the current state of dust science and research. Where possible, the papers in this volume emphasize the interconnections, similarities, and differences in the field, synthesizing results from several techniques into one cohesive view. Importantly, astrobiological connections have now been considered. The dust hazard, future technology and research, and space mission requirements and scenarios are also addressed. The outcome of this endeavor is an interdisciplinary compendium with a unified perspective on cosmic dust science. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars"
Dust is widespread in the galaxy. To astronomers studying stars it may be just an irritating fog, but it is becoming widely recognized that cosmic dust plays an active role in astrochemistry. Without dust, the galaxy would have evolved differently, and planetary systems like ours would not have occurred. To explore and consolidate this active area of research, Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy covers the role of dust in the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium, with the exception of dust in the solar system. Each chapter provides thorough coverage of our understanding of interstellar dust, particularly its interaction with interstellar gas. Aimed at postgraduate researchers, the book also serves as a thorough review of this significant area of astrophysics for practicing astronomers and graduate students.
It has been firmly established over the last quarter century that cosmic dust plays important roles in astrochemistry. The consequences of these roles affect the formation of planets, stars and even galaxies. Cosmic dust has been a controversial topic but there is now a considerable measure of agreement as to its nature and roles in astronomy, and its initiation of astrobiology. The subject has stimulated an enormous research effort, with researchers in many countries now involved in laboratory research and in ab initio computations. This is the first book devoted to a study of the chemistry of cosmic dust, presenting current thinking on the subject distilled from many publications in surface and solid-state science, and in astronomy. The authors discuss the nature of dust, its formation and evolution, the chemistry it can promote on its surfaces, and the consequences of these functions. The purpose of this book is to review current understanding and to indicate where future work is required. Mainly intended for researchers in the field of astrochemistry, the book could also be used as the basis of a course for postgraduate students who have an interest in astrochemistry.
Written by leading scientists in the field and intended for a broader readership, this is an ideal starting point for an overview of current research and developments. As such, the book covers a broad spectrum of laboratory astrophysics and chemistry, describing recent advances in experiments, as well as theoretical work, including fundamental physics and modeling chemical networks. For researchers as well as students and newcomers to the field. From the contents: The Astrophysical Background Molecular Spectroscopy Gas Phase Chemistry Molecular Photodissociation Surface Science Dust and Nanoparticle Spectroscopy Formation of Nanoparticles and Solids
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte (OAC 2), held at Capri, Italy, September 8–12. 1987
Author: E. Bussoletti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Astrophysical analysis relating to solid matter requires data on properties and processes. Such data, however, expecially appropriate to space conditions are mostly lacking. It appeared then very tempting to gather together experimentalists, ob servers and theoreticians working in the field of cosmic dust and in related areas. The Workshop held in Capri (Italy) from September 8th till 12th 1987 gave the participants a unique opportunity for exchange of ideas and discussions of problems and experimental procedures. Introductory reports were prepared with the aim of giving the state of the art about single subjects; contributed poster papers presented, on the contrary, very recent results in the various fields. According to his specific interest each attendant has also contributed to three Working Groups respectively on a) carbon, b) silicates, c) ice and related topics. Scientifical and technical problems about these items were discussed in great detail. Though no definite answers were given, useful indications come out which will be of some help for future works. In addition to the scientific efforts, the Capodimonte Observatory and the Istituto Universitario Navale sought to give a warm welcome to the participants. Thanks to several sponsors, the LOC could organize some excursions and shows to entertain people during their spare time.
Interstellar dust, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDP's), the zodiacal light, comets, comet dust. Where do they come from, what are they made of, how do they evolve, and finally, are there connections between them? These are the questions discussed in this volume by some of the world's outstanding experts in their respective fields. The techniques used for studying the `small' solid objects of space are thoroughly discussed. Some of the methods involve a synthetic approach using the laboratory to create analog environments and materials which are believed to resemble those in space. Others use direct laboratory methods with state-of-the-art analytical tools to study the material of the objects themselves - meteorites, IDP'S. And others apply the latest in astronomical facilities to provide quantitative data on the material properties of the solids which can only be deduced from remote observations, These are compared with the laboratory results. In one instance there was a possibility to study a solar system body in situ and that was the case of comet Halley and some of the results of these studies obtained from space `laboratories' launched to meet it are discussed here. Finally, there are theoretical papers which are aimed at bridging the results of observational and laboratory methods. This book is recommended to senior scientists as well as graduate students who wish to pursue research in interstellar and solar system astronomy and their connections.
Astromineralogy deals with the science of gathering mineralogical information from the astronomical spectroscopy of asteroids, comets and dust in the circumstellar environments in general. It is only recently, however, that this field has received a tremendous boost with the reliable identification of minerals by the Infrared Space Observatory. This book is the first comprehensive and coherent account of this exciting field. Beyond addressing the specialist in the field, the book is intended as a high-level but readable introduction to astromineralogy for both the nonspecialist researcher and the advanced student.
THE EDITORS: DAVID L. BLOCK AND KENNETH C. FREEMAN (SOC CO-CHAIRS), IVANIO PUERARI, ROBERT GROESS AND LIZ K. BLOCK 1. Harvard College Observatory, 1958 The past century has truly brought about an explosive period of growth and discovery for the physical sciences as a whole, and for astronomy in particular. Galaxy morphology has reached a renaissance . . The year: 1958. The date: October 1. The venue: Harvard College Observatory. The lecturer: Walter Baade. With amazing foresight, Baade penned these words: "Young stars, supergiants and so on, make a terrific splash - lots of light. The total mass of these can be very small compared to the total mass of the system". Dr Layzer then asked the key question: " . . . the discussion raises the point of what this classification would look like if you were to ignore completely all the Population I, and just focus attention on the Population II . . . " We stand on the shoulders of giants. The great observer E. E. Barnard, in his pioneering efforts to photograph the Milky Way, devoted the major part of his life to identifying and numbering dusty "holes" and dust lanes in our Milky Way. No one could have dreamt that the pervasiveness of these cosmic dust masks (not only in our Galaxy but also in galaxies at high redshift) is so great, that their "penetration" is truly one of the pioneering challenges from both space-borne telescopes and from the ground.
Any notion that surface science is all about semiconductors and coatings is laid to rest by this encyclopedic publication: Bioengineered interfaces in medicine, interstellar dust, DNA computation, conducting polymers, the surfaces of atomic nuclei - all are brought up to date. Frontiers in Surface and Interface Science - a milestone publication deserving a wide readership. It combines a sweeping expert survey of research today with an educated look into the future. It is a future that embraces surface phenomena on scales from the subatomic to the galactic, as well as traditional topics like semiconductor design, catalysis, and surface processing, modeling and characterization. And, great efforts have been made to express sophisticated ideas in an attractive and accessible way. Nanotechnology, surfaces for DNA computation, polymer-based electronics, soft surfaces, interstellar surface chemistry - all feature in this comprehensive collection.
This unique collection of knowledge represents a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental and practical consequences of size reduction in silicon crystals. This clearly structured reference introduces readers to the optical, electrical and thermal properties of silicon nanocrystals that arise from their greatly reduced dimensions. It covers their synthesis and characterization from both chemical and physical viewpoints, including ion implantation, colloidal synthesis and vapor deposition methods. A major part of the text is devoted to applications in microelectronics as well as photonics and nanobiotechnology, making this of great interest to the high-tech industry.
The small bodies in planetary systems are indicative of the material evo- tion, the dynamical evolution, and the presence of planets in a system. Recent astronomicalresearch,spaceresearch,laboratoryresearch,andnumericals- ulationsbroughtawealthofnewandexciting?ndingsonextra-solarplanetary systems and on asteroids, comets, meteoroids, dust, and trans-Neptunian - jects in the solar system. Progress in astronomical instrumentation led to the discovery and investigation of small bodies in the outer solar system and to observations of cosmic dust in debris disks of extra-solar planetary systems. Space research allowed for close studies of some of the small solar system bodies from spacecraft. This lecture series is intended as an introduction to the latest research results and to the key issues of future research. The ch- ters are mainly based on lectures given during a recent research school and on research activities within the 21st Century COE Program “Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems” at Kobe University, Japan. In Chap. 1, Taku Takeuchi discusses the evolution of gas and dust from protoplanetary disks to planetary disks. Using a simple model, he studies v- cous evolution and photoevaporation as possible mechanisms of gas dispersal. He further considers how the dust grows into planetesimals. Motion of dust particles induced by gas drag is described, and then using a simple analytic model, the dust growth timescale is discussed.
Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries
Stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB stars) play an important role due to their high luminosity and production of heavy elements and cosmic dust. They are prime laboratories for studying situations where different physical and chemical processes work simultaneously, on different time scales. IAU Symposium 343 builds a bridge between research on AGB stars themselves and their applications to the modelling of stellar populations and the chemical evolution of galaxies. Our understanding of these complex stars is given using insights into many aspects of physics and chemistry, while very high-angular resolution observations of AGB stars and their surroundings provide strong constraints on stellar theory and how they lose matter through strong stellar winds. This volume also highlights the difficulties in estimating the importance of AGB stars for various aspects of galaxies. Current developments and challenges of these complex objects are discussed for a broad, interdisciplinary audience of astronomers.
The book provides a useful introduction to the study of the aurora for the nonexpert reader. It should be particularly helpful to amateur astronomers and others who wish to make systematic observations of the aurora from the UK. Much background information on the solar-terrestrial environment has been included which provides a helpful insight into the auroral processes. The Observatory
Dust is a ubiquitous feature of the cosmos, impinging directly or indirectly on most fields of modern astronomy and astrophysics. Dust in the Galactic Environment, Second Edition provides a thorough overview of the subject, covering general concepts, methods of investigation, important results and their significance, relevant literature, and some suggestions for promising avenues of future research. Since the publication of the first edition of this popular graduate text, major advances have been made in our understanding of astrophysical dust, especially in the light of exciting new results from space- and ground-based telescopes, together with advances in laboratory astrophysics and theoretical modeling. This new, expanded edition highlights the latest results and provides a context for future research opportunities. The first chapter provides a historical perspective for current research and an overview of interstellar environments and the role of dust in astrophysical processes, followed by a discussion of the cosmic history of the chemical elements expected to be present in dust and an examination of the effect of gas-dust interactions on gas phase abundances. The next several chapters describe the observed properties of interstellar grains, such as their extinction, polarization, absorption, and emission characteristics. Then, the book explores the origin and evolution of dust, tracing its life cycle in a succession of environments from circumstellar shells to diffuse interstellar clouds, molecular clouds, protostars, and protoplanetary disks. The final chapter summarizes progress toward a unified model. Dust in other galaxies is discussed as an integral part of the text rather than as a distinct topic requiring separate chapters. Containing extensive references and problems to aid understanding and illustrate basic principles, the book is ideally suited for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It will also be an invaluable reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in this important field.