This book introduces a dynamic perspective to study white-collar crime. It argues that as personal motives change over time, so too do organizational opportunities, and willingness for deviant behavior. The work contends that the extent of white-collar crime is dependent on the extent of crime convenience perceived and preferred by potential offenders. It discusses how potential white-collar offenders expand organizational opportunities for financial crime over time. The dynamics are illustrated here by system dynamics models to capture cause and effect relationships. The book also presents a new structural model illustrating the elements of convenience theory along with a new dynamic model illustrating the evolution of white-collar crime. The practical aspects are illustrated with a number of case studies. The book will be of interest to researchers, academics and professionals working in the areas of Criminal Justice, Criminology, Criminal Law and Business Studies.
The ‘convenience triangle’ is the dynamic relationship between motive, opportunity, and willingness to commit a crime, which culminates in the illegal acts which constitute white-collar crime. This book aims to discuss the role of the ‘convenience triangle’ in white-collar crime, how it affects the perpetration of these crimes, the impact of this on detection and prevention and the effects of the punitive measures taken against white-collar criminals.
This book outlines the theory of convenience for white-collar crime to explain what motivates and enables offenders, providing a unique focus on white-collar crime in the business context. The theory of convenience suggests that the extent to which elite members commit and conceal economic crime is dependent on their extent of orientation towards convenience in problematic and attractive situations. Chapters are organized along the main theoretical dimensions of economical motive, organizational opportunity, and personal willingness. In addition, this book: Addresses a business audience by focusing on themes familiar to corporations Documents attitudes towards white-collar crime among business students and future business leaders Analyzes how convenience orientation varies among individuals Analyzes autobiographies of convicted white-collar offenders Demonstrates the various ways in which white-collar crime occurs The Convenience of White-Collar Crime in Business contributes to an increased understanding of white-collar crime, offering valuable insight in business education that supplements the traditional roles of topics like auditing and compliance in education and practice. It is a useful resource for researchers and law enforcement, and those involved in the detection, prosecution, and conviction of white-collar offenders.
This book uses global case studies of white-collar crime to examine offenders in top business positions and their motives. Drawing on the theory of convenience, this book opens up new perspectives of white-collar offenders in terms of their financial motives, their professional opportunities, and their personal willingness for deviant behaviour. It focusses on three groups of privileged individuals who have abused their positions for economic gain: people who occupied the position of chair of the board, people who were chief executive officers, and female offenders in top positions, and the related white-collar crimes. Convenience themes are identified in each case using the structural model for convenience theory. The case studies are from Denmark, Germany, Japan, Moldova, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. This book speaks to those interested in white-collar crime, criminal justice, policing, organizational behaviour and business administration.
This insightful book illustrates thirteen case studies demonstrating the convenience theory of white-collar crime. Offering an integrated deductive perspective through a convenience lens, Petter Gottschalk provides crucial insights into the motives, opportunities and behaviors behind executive deviance.
By examining white-collar crime scandals using the theory of convenience, Petter Gottschalk offers ways to improve the detection of crime signals and investigative skills in fraud examinations, as well as improve change management measures.
Lack of Detection, Investigation and Conviction Compared to Social Security Fraud
Author: Petter Gottschalk
Category: Social Science
This open access book examines the magnitude, causes of, and reactions to white-collar crime, based on the theories and research of those who have uncovered various forms of white-collar crime. It argues that the offenders who are convicted represent only ‘the tip of the iceberg’ of a much greater problem: because white-collar crime is forced to compete with other kinds of financial crime like social security fraud for police resources and so receives less attention and fewer investigations. Gottschalk and Gunnesdal also offer insights into estimation techniques for the shadow economy, in an attempt to comprehend the size of the problem. Holding broad appeal for academics, practitioners in public administration, and government agencies, this innovative study serves as a timely starting point for examining the lack of investigation, detection, and conviction of powerful white-collar criminals.
Fraud and Corruption is at the core of financial crime by white-collar offenders. This book provides an introduction to the shadow economy and presents the theory of convenience for white-collar crime. It explains why so few are willing to blow the whistle on people in the elite for misconduct and crime. The book is aimed at readers who are training for and working in control functions. The book illustrates challenges in controlling public administration by political bodies. Readers will learn the definitions of fraud and corruption, the convenience perspective, the role of whistleblowers, and the importance of fraud and corruption investigations. In addition, it presents updated research on white-collar crime as explained by convenience theory and illustrated by problematic issues such as whistleblower retaliation.
Investigating white-collar crime is like any other investigation concerned with past events. However, a number of characteristics require a contingent approach to these investigations. This book describes the process of conducting private internal investigations by fraud examiners and presents a number of reports from the United States, Sweden and Norway. It evaluates a number of internal investigation reports to reflect on the practice of fraud examinations. Empirical studies provide a basis to reflect theoretically on practice improvements for fraud examiners. Rather than presenting normative recommendations based on ideal or stereotype situations so often found in existing books, this book develops guidelines based on empirical study of current practice. Internal investigations should uncover the truth about misconduct or crime without damaging the reputation of innocent employees. Typical elements of an inquiry include collection and examination of written and recorded evidence, interviews with suspects and witnesses, data in computer systems, and network forensics. Internal inquiries may take many forms, depending upon the nature of the conduct at issue and the scope of the investigation. There should be recognition at the outset of any investigation that certain materials prepared during the course of the investigation may eventually be subject to disclosure to law enforcement authorities or other third parties. The entire investigation should be conducted with an eye towards preparing a final report. As evidenced in this book, private fraud examiners take on complicated roles in private internal investigations and often fail in their struggle to reconstruct the past in objective ways characterized by integrity and accountability.
Understanding White-Collar Crime develops the concept of convenience as the main explanation for crime occurrence. Examining all three dimensions of crime—economic, organizational, and behavioral—the book argues that when white-collar crime becomes less convenient, crime rates will go down. By applying convenience theory to an empirical sample of convicted white-collar criminals, the text teaches criminal justice students and ethics and compliance practitioners to identify and understand how opportunity affects real-world criminal situations. Internal investigations of white-collar crime are discussed, and corporate social responsibility against white-collar crime is emphasized. Understanding White-Collar Crime: A Convenience Perspective examines not only the theories behind white-collar crime, but also explores methods used in criminal justice investigations into corporate fraud, and emphasizes the importance of corporate social responsibility in reducing crimes of this nature. Criminal justice students and practitioners should not miss this close look into the world of white-collar crime.
This book discusses privatization of law enforcement in relation to suspected corporate crime and recommends guidelines for successful fraud examinations. There is a growing business for global auditing and local law firms to conduct internal investigations at client organizations when there is suspicion of white-collar misconduct and crime. This book reflects on the work by these private fraud examiners in terms of an evaluation of their investigation reports. The book brings an original theoretical and methodological approach to investigations of white-collar crime. It develops the theory of convenience as an explanation for motive, opportunity, and willingness to commit and conceal white-collar crime. This theory is then related to the case studies. Structured in such a way as to allow the reader to use the text as a nonsequential reference source or guide to a set of connected issues, the book illustrates the practice of privatization by cases and presents guidelines for successful fraud examination. As an investigation can lead to conviction and incarceration, this privatization of crime investigation feeds into the larger issue of privatization of policing. The work will be a valuable resource for students, academics, and practitioners working in the areas of Criminal Justice, Corporate Law, and Business.
The thoroughly updated Second Edition of White Collar Crime: The Essentials continues to be a comprehensive, yet concise, resource addressing the most important topics students need to know about white-collar crime. Author Brian K. Payne provides a theoretical framework and context for students that explores such timely topics as crimes by workers, sales-oriented systems, crimes in the health care system, crimes by criminal justice professionals and politicians, crimes in the educational system, crimes in economic and technological systems, corporate crime, environmental crime, and more. This easy to read teaching tool is a valuable resource for any course that covers white-collar crime.
This book aims to bridge the gap between general CEO research, which is traditionally focused on positive aspects of leadership, and lesser understood research into CEO misconduct and crime. Gottschalk introduces convenience theory as an integrated explanation for CEO involvement in white-collar crime. The chief executive officer is a unique position within an organization in terms of power and influence, role and behavior, compensation and benefits, and conflict and competition. The convenience perspective suggests that motivation (personal and organizational goals), opportunity (offense and concealment in an organizational context), as well as behavior (lack of control and neutralization of guilt) make financial crime a convenient option to avoid threats and to exploit opportunities. A thorough and methodical study, this book will be of special interest to scholars of corporate social responsibility and criminological theory.
This book applies a structural model of convenience theory to suspected crime and a maturity model to investigation reports. Evidence of white-collar convenience themes in each case study is derived from internal investigation reports by fraud examiners. The study of white-collar offenders has received increased attention in recent years. This book contributes to our understanding of financial crime by privileged individuals in professional settings by identifying convenience themes for offenders. Based on the theory of convenience, the work presents a number of case studies to identify convenience in financial motive, organizational opportunity, and willingness for deviant behavior. Case studies presented are from Austria, Asia, Congo, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. The book will be of interest to researchers and academics in Law, Criminology, Business, and Sociology. It will also provide a valuable resource for fraud examiners, defense attorneys, police investigators, and prosecutors.
In an environment where corporate scandals fill the headlines and ethics courses have suddenly become standard fare in business schools, Terry Leap offers welcome insights into and useful ways of thinking about a critical problem that permeates our society. His main contribution is an integrative model of white-collar crime, which smoothly incorporates influences from sociology, psychology, public policy, and business. As he explains the process that occurs across the many different categories of crimes within organizations, he finds that there are more similarities than differences between "criminals in the suites" and "criminals in the streets."Leap's definition of crimes within organizations and the people who commit them are laid out in his first chapter. He then goes on to discuss the causes of and events surrounding white-collar crime, types of crimes and criminals, the decision-making processes of white-collar criminals, and the impact of these crimes. His concluding chapter predicts future trends in corporate crime, including an explanation of why we are likely to see more crime in health care. Throughout, Leap presents numerous specific examples and cases—from famous meltdowns such as Enron and WorldCom to less-publicized incidents including a weight-loss franchisee mislabeling doughnuts as low fat and a CEO of a South Carolina regional transportation authority misusing taxpayer money for lavish meals, personal expenses, and world travel.
Ever since Sutherland coined the term ‘white-collar crime’, researchers have struggled to understand and explain why some individuals abuse their privileged positions of trust and commit financial crime. This book makes a novel contribution to the development of convenience theory as a framework to understand and explain ‘white-collar crime’.
The Concept of Convenience in Financial Crime Investigations
Author: Petter Gottschalk
Category: Social Science
This book introduces 'convenience' as the key concept to explain financial crime by white-collar criminals. Based on a number of fraud examination- reports from the United States and Norway, the book documents empirical evidence of convenience among white-collar criminals. It advances our understanding of white-collar crime by drawing attention to private investigation reports by fraud examiners and financial crime specialists, who are in the growing business of fraud investigations. Reports of investigations have never before been researched in terms of white-collar criminals nor crime convenience. Reports of investigations by auditing and law firms represent a valuable empirical basis – in addition to court documents and other sources of information about financial crime. A methodical and well-researched study, this book will be of particular interest to scholars of criminological theory and law – in addition to ethics courses in business schools.
A comprehensive and state-of the-art overview from internationally-recognized experts on white-collar crime covering a broad range of topics from many perspectives Law enforcement professionals and criminal justice scholars have debated the most appropriate definition of “white-collar crime” ever since Edwin Sutherland first coined the phrase in his speech to the American Sociological Society in 1939. The conceptual ambiguity surrounding the term has challenged efforts to construct a body of science that meaningfully informs policy and theory. The Handbook of White-Collar Crime is a unique re-framing of traditional discussions that discusses common topics of white-collar crime—who the offenders are, who the victims are, how these crimes are punished, theoretical explanations—while exploring how the choice of one definition over another affects research and scholarship on the subject. Providing a one-volume overview of research on white-collar crime, this book presents diverse perspectives from an international team of both established and newer scholars that review theory, policy, and empirical work on a broad range of topics. Chapters explore the extent and cost of white-collar crimes, individual- as well as organizational- and macro-level theories of crime, law enforcement roles in prevention and intervention, crimes in Africa and South America, the influence of technology and globalization, and more. This important resource: Explores diverse implications for future theory, policy, and research on current and emerging issues in the field Clarifies distinct characteristics of specific types of offences within the general archetype of white-collar crime Includes chapters written by researchers from countries commonly underrepresented in the field Examines the real-world impact of ambiguous definitions of white-collar crime on prevention, investigation, and punishment Offers critical examination of how definitional decisions steer the direction of criminological scholarship Accessible to readers at the undergraduate level, yet equally relevant for experienced practitioners, academics, and researchers, The Handbook of White-Collar Crime is an innovative, substantial contribution to contemporary scholarship in the field.
This textbook provides an overview of the major types of fraud and corrupt activities found in private and public agencies, as well as the various methods used to prevent fraud and corruption. It explores where opportunities for fraud exist, the personal characteristics of those who engage in fraud, as well as their prevention and control. This work covers fraud in the financial sector, insurance, health care, and police organizations, as well as cybercrime. It covers the relationship between fraud, corruption, and terrorism; criminal networks; and major types of personal scams (like identity theft and phishing). Finally, it covers the prevention and control of fraud, through corporate whistle blowing, investigative reporting, forensic accounting, and educating the public. This work will be of interest to graduate-level students (as well as upper-level undergraduates) in Criminology & Criminal Justice, particularly with a focus on white collar and corporate crime, as well as related fields like business and management.