The second edition of this comprehensive reference is a collection of 78 articles that examine the social aspects of computerization from a variety of perspectives. Fields represented include computer science, information systems, management, journalism, psychology, law, library science, and sociology.
The aim of this book is to present readers with state-of-the-art options which allow pupils as well as teachers to cope with the social impacts and implications of information technology and the rapid technological developments of the past 25 years. The book explores the following key areas: the adaption of curricula to the social needs of society; the influences of multimedia on social interaction; morals, values and ethics in the information technology curriculum; social and pedagogical variables which promote information technology use; and social implications of distance learning through the medium of information technology. This volume contains the selected proceedings of the TC3/TC9 International Working Conference of the Impact of Information technology, sponsored by the International Federation for Information Processing and held in Israel, March, 1996.
" "Computerization movement" (CM) refers to a special kind of social and technological movement that promotes the adoption of computing within organizations and society. ... Through theoretical analyses, systematic empirical studies, field-based studies, and case studies of specific technologies, the book shows CMs to be driven by Utopian visions of technology that become part of the "ether" within society. The empirical studies presented here show the need for designers, users, and the media to be aware that CM rhetoric can propose grand visions that never become part of a reality and reinforce the need for critical and scholarly review of promising new technologies."--Back cover.
"This sobering description of many computer-related failures throughout our world deflates the hype and hubris of the industry. Peter Neumann analyzes the failure modes, recommends sequences for prevention and ends his unique book with some broadening reflections on the future." —Ralph Nader, Consumer Advocate This book is much more than a collection of computer mishaps; it is a serious, technically oriented book written by one of the world's leading experts on computer risks. The book summarizes many real events involving computer technologies and the people who depend on those technologies, with widely ranging causes and effects. It considers problems attributable to hardware, software, people, and natural causes. Examples include disasters (such as the Black Hawk helicopter and Iranian Airbus shootdowns, the Exxon Valdez, and various transportation accidents); malicious hacker attacks; outages of telephone systems and computer networks; financial losses; and many other strange happenstances (squirrels downing power grids, and April Fool's Day pranks). Computer-Related Risks addresses problems involving reliability, safety, security, privacy, and human well-being. It includes analyses of why these cases happened and discussions of what might be done to avoid recurrences of similar events. It is readable by technologists as well as by people merely interested in the uses and limits of technology. It is must reading for anyone with even a remote involvement with computers and communications—which today means almost everyone. Computer-Related Risks: Presents comprehensive coverage of many different types of risks Provides an essential system-oriented perspective Shows how technology can affect your life—whether you like it or not!
Linguistic, Social, and Cross-cultural Perspectives
Author: Susan C. Herring
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Text-based interaction among humans connected via computer networks, such as takes place via email and in synchronous modes such as chat, MUDs and MOOs, has attracted considerable popular and scholarly attention. This collection of 14 articles on text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC), is the first to bring empirical evidence from a variety of disciplinary perspectives to bear on questions raised by the new medium.The first section, linguistic perspectives, addresses the question of how CMC compares with speaking and writing, and describes its unique structural characteristics. Section two, on social and ethical perspectives, explores conflicts between the interests of groups and those of individual users, including issues of online sex and sexism. In the third section, cross-cultural perspectives, the advantages and risks of using CMC to communicate across cultures are examined in three studies involving users in East Asia, Mexico, and students of ethnically diverse backgrounds in remedial writing classes in the United States. The final section deals with the effects of CMC on group interaction: in a women s studies mailing list, a hierarchically-organized workplace, and a public protest on the Internet against corporate interests.
Human values--including accountability, privacy, autonomy, and respect for person--emerge from the computer systems that we build and how we choose to use them. Yet, important questions on human values and system design have remained largely unexplored. If human values are controversial, then on what basis do some values override others in the design of, for example, hardware, algorithms, and databases? Do users interact with computer systems as social actors? If so, should designers of computer persona and agents seek to build on such human tendencies, or check them? How have design decisions in hospitals, research labs, and computer corporations protected or degraded such values? This volume brings together leading researchers and system designers who take up these questions, and more.
This comprehensive introduction to the field represents the best of the published literature on groupware and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). The papers were chosen for their breadth of coverage of the field, their clarity of expression and presentation, their excellence in terms of technical innovation or behavioral insight, their historical significance, and their utility as sources for further reading. Taken as a whole, the papers and their introductions are a complete sourcebook to the field. This book will be useful for computer professionals involved in the development or purchase of groupware technology as well as for researchers and managers. It should also serve as a valuable text for university courses on CSCW, groupware, and human-computer interaction.
This book provides one of the first clear-headed assessments of information technology and organizational transformation. Its virtue is not so much in its recognition of the importance of the subject; speculations on this topic have been rampant for more than a decade. Rather, it is unusual and unusually useful, because it avoids speculation in favor of conceptually coherent accounts grounded in empirical study of actual organizations. The chapters contained in this volume move beyond the superficial glorification of information technology as an extraordinary instrument of social change, and straight to the heart of the mechanisms of change as they play out in everyday organizational life. In the process, they reaffirm that the real story of information technology in organizations is more about people than about technology. Taken together, they provide an important contribution to the intellectual foundations of one of the most interesting developments in decades.
While many professionals argue about the validity and acceptability of the non-dominant dialects/discourse systems of minority groups, schools and colleges continue to discriminate against and penalize students who use non-dominant dialects and discourse. This study describes and analyzes non-dominant dialects/discourse systems associated with certain cultural groups in the U.S. and examines their school experiences. Building from the theoretical foundations of critical, liberatory literacy and whole language approaches to teaching, the book suggests classroom approaches designed to help teach people from various cultures to improve their own literacy levels without losing their individual/cultural identities.
The Sixth Edition of CyberEthics: Morality and Law in Cyberspace provides a comprehensive examination of the social costs and moral issues emerging from the ever-expanding use of the internet and new information technologies. Focusing heavily on content control, free speech, intellectual property, and security, the sixth edition offers a legal and philosophical discussion of these critical issues.
The effectiveness of the user-computer interface has become increasingly important as computer systems have become useful tools for persons not trained in computer science. In fact, the interface is often the most important factor in the success or failure of any computer system. Dealing with the numerous subtly interrelated issues and technical, behavioral, and aesthetic considerations consumes a large and increasing share of development time and a corresponding percentage of the total code for any given application. A revision of one of the most successful books on human-computer interaction, this compilation gives students, researchers, and practitioners an overview of the significant concepts and results in the field and a comprehensive guide to the research literature. Like the first edition, this book combines reprints of key research papers and case studies with synthesizing survey material and analysis by the editors. It is significantly reorganized, updated, and enhanced; over 90% of the papers are new. An invaluable resource for systems designers, cognitive scientists, computer scientists, managers, and anyone concerned with the effectiveness of user-computer interfaces, it is also designed for use as a primary or supplementary text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in human-computer interaction and interface design. Human computer interaction--historical, intellectual, and social Developing interactive systems, including design, evaluation methods, and development tools The interaction experience, through a variety of sensory modalities including vision, touch, gesture, audition, speech, and language Theories of information processing and issues of human-computer fit and adaptation
Presenting an analysis of the cultural impact of new technologies, this text anchors contemporary dicusssions of the digital future within a firm critical tradition of the media-arts, society and culture.
The transition from serial to parallel computing in which many operations are performed simultaneously and at tremendous speed, marks a new era in computation. These original essays explore the emerging modalities and potential impact of this technological revolution. Daniel Hillis, inventor of the superfast Connection Machine, provides a clear explanation of massively parallel computing. The essays that follow investigate the rich possibilities, as well as the constraints, that parallel computation holds for the future. These possibilities include its tremendous potential for simulating currently intractable physical processes and for solving "monster" scientific problems (involving new algorithms and ways of thinking about problem solving that will change the way we think about the world), and its use in the neural sciences (where the biological model for parallel computation is the brain). Essays also address the gap between the promise of this new technology and our current educational system and look at America's technological agenda for the 1990s. Daniel Hillis is Chief Scientist and James Bailey is Director of Marketing, both at Thinking Machines Corporation. Selected Essays: Preface, Stephen R. Graubard. What is Massively Parallel Computing, and Why Is It Important? W. Daniel Hillis. Complex Adaptive Systems, John H. Holland. Perspectives on Parallel Computing, Yuefan Deng, James Glimm, David H. Sharp. Parallel Billiards and Monster Systems, Brosl Hasslacher. First We Reshape Our Computers, Then Our Computers Reshape Us: The Broader Intellectual Impact of Parallelism, James Bailey. Parallelism in Conscious Experience. Robert Sokolowski. Of Time, Intelligence, and Institutions, Felix E. Browder. Parallel Computing and Education, Geoffrey C. Fox. The Age of Computing: A Personal Memoir, N. Metropolis. What Should the Public Know about Mathematics? Philip J. Davis. America's Economic-Technological Agenda for the 1990s, Jacob T. Schwartz. A Daedalus special issue
United States. Congress. Senate. Government Operations
A coherent integrated source for an interpretive approach to understanding information systems in organizations to aid readers in their own processes of defining computer systems. Examines four major IS issues--strategy, evaluation, design and development, implementation. Features in-depth case studies to illustrate key points.
The collection, management, and analysis of data are all increasingly mediated through electronic management, offering evaluators new ways of knowing, along with new responsibilities and challenges. This issue of New Directions for Evaluation provides an introduction to various data collection technologies and tools, identifying both their benefits and their shortcomings. Chapters address the practical challenges of conducting e-mail questionnaires, web-based surveys, and web-based focus groups; explore the use of technology to evaluate technology, discussing methods for observing users and gathering feedback; and show how multimedia applications can foster mixed-method research designs. This is 84th issue of the quarterly journal New Directions for Evaluation.