This book provides an enlightening picture of the role of microbes for sustaining life systems and how climatic factors will change the course of the processes. Climate Change and Microbes: Impacts and Vulnerability explores the little-addressed issue of the effects of climate change on microbial ecosystems and the influence of climate change on microbiome diversity across various habitats and regions. Recent years have seen the evidence that microbial communities are neither immune to disruption nor do they have the capacity to recover completely after a stressful climate event. This volume documents the important role of microorganisms as climate engineers and considers mitigation and adaptation strategies as well. It goes on to present the research that addresses a diverse array of topics on the impact of climate change on plant-microbe interactions and microbial aquatic life and change-induced aggravations in microbial populations and processes. The book also addresses microbial foodborne diseases resulting from challenging climates. Other topics include algae as indicators of climate change and strategies for facilitating sustainable agro-ecosystems. This book will be immensely helpful in the study of plant microbiology, agricultural sciences, biotechnology, climate science, and environmental microbiology. It will also be applicable to the field of microbial biotechnology, agricultural, and other life and environmental sciences.
This book highlights the impact of climate change on the soil microbiome and its subsequent effects on plant health, soil-plant dynamics, and the ecosphere. It also discusses emerging ideas to counteract these effects, e.g., through agricultural applications of functional microbes, to ensure a sustainable ecosystem. Climate change is altering the soil microbiome distributions and thus the interactions in microbiome and plant-soil microorganism. Improvement of our understanding of microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interaction under changing climatic conditions is essential, because the overall impact of these interactions under varying adverse environmental conditions is lacking. This book has been designed to understand the impact of climate change, i.e., mainly salt and drought stress, on the soil microbiome and its impact on plant, yield, and the ecosphere. The book is organized into four parts: The first part reviews the impact of climate change on the diversity and richness of the soil microbiome. The second part addresses effects of climate change on plant health. The third part discusses effects on soil-plant dynamics and functionality, e.g., soil productivity. The final part deals with the effects of climate change on ecosystem functioning and also discusses potential solutions. The book will appeal to students and researchers working in the area of soil science, agriculture, molecular biology, plant physiology, and biotechnology.
The distribution and function of microorganisms are of crucial importance for the flow of matter in the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Effects of microbial communities on the carbon and nitrogen cycles are particularly important for producing climate gases such as CO2, CH4, or N2O. However, the biogeochemical cycles are reversely impacted by global climate change, for example by increasing temperature, increasing CO2 concentration, or changing soil humidity. However microbes may respond differently, by accelerating or by alleviating, human-caused climate change. Understanding of microbial ecology in the different ecosystems on Earth, such as soil, oceans, or inland waters, is essential for our ability to assess the importance of biogeochemical cycles-climate feedbacks. Unfortunately, microbial communities are extremely complex in structure and function and can be affected by climate and other global changes in many ways, which impedes our ability to draw reliable conclusions. In this book, a broad range of renowned scientists reviews the most important hot-topics in the area of climate change and microbial ecology, thus providing a timely and authoritative overview of this increasingly important area. Individual chapters cover the various ecosystems on Earth as well as the different groups of microorganisms with respect to different cycles of matter. In addition, special chapters cover applied aspects, such as land-use and geoengineering. This is an essential book for every microbial ecologist from the PhD student to the experienced scientist and is also recommended for everyone interested in the field of global climate change. [Subject: Microbiology, Climate Change, Microbial Ecology]
A comprehensive, edited volume pulling together research on manipulation of the crop microbiome for climate resilient agriculture Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture provides a unique collection of data and a holistic view of the subject with quantitative assessment of how agricultural systems will be transformed in coming decades using hidden treasure of microbes. Authored by leaders in the field and edited to ensure conciseness and clarity, it covers a broad range of agriculturally important crops, discusses the impact of climate change on crops, and examines biotechnologically and environmentally relevant microbes. The book encapsulates the understanding of microbial mediated stress management at field level, and will serve as a springboard for novel research findings and new applications in the field. Chapter coverage includes: the role of the phytomicrobiome in maintaining biofuel crop production in a changing climate; the impact of agriculture on soil microbial community composition and diversity in southeast Asia; climate change impact on plant diseases; microalgae; photosynthetic microorganisms and bioenergy prospects; amelioration of abiotic stresses in plants through multi-faceted beneficial microorganisms; role of methylotrophic bacteria in climate change mitigation; conservation agriculture for climate change resilience; archaeal community structure; mycorrhiza-helping plants to navigate environmental stresses; endophytic microorganisms; bacillus thuringiensis; and microbial nanotechnology for climate resilient agriculture. Clear and succinct chapters contributed and edited by leaders in the field Covers microbes' beneficial and detrimental roles in the microbiome, as well as the functions they perform under stress Discusses the crop microbiome, nutrient cycling microbes, endophytes, mycorrhizae, and various pests and diseases, and their roles in sustainable farming Places research in larger context of climate change's effect on global agriculture Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture is an important text for scientists and researchers studying microbiology, biotechnology, environmental biology, agronomy, plant physiology, and plant protection.
The cryosphere stands for environments where water appears in a frozen form. It includes permafrost, glaciers, ice sheets, and sea ice and is currently more affected by Global Change than most other regions of the Earth. In the cryosphere, limited water availability and subzero temperatures cause extreme conditions for all kind of life which microorganisms can cope with extremely well. The cryosphere’s microbiota displays an unexpectedly large genetic potential, and taxonomic as well as functional diversity which, however, we still only begin to map. Also, microbial communities influence reaction patterns of the cryosphere towards Global Change. Altered patterns of seasonal temperature fluctuations and precipitation are expected in the Arctic and will affect the microbial turnover of soil organic matter (SOM). Activation of nutrients by thawing and increased active layer thickness as well as erosion renders nutrient stocks accessible to microbial activities. Also, glacier melt and retreat stimulate microbial life in turn influencing albedo and surface temperatures. In this context, the functional resilience of microbial communities in the cryosphere is of major interest. Particularly important is the ability of microorganisms and microbial communities to respond to changes in their surroundings by intracellular regulation and population shifts within functional niches, respectively. Research on microbial life exposed to permanent freeze or seasonal freeze-thaw cycles has led to astonishing findings about microbial versatility, adaptation, and diversity. Microorganisms thrive in cold habitats and new sequencing techniques have produced large amounts of genomic, metagenomic, and metatranscriptomic data that allow insights into the fascinating microbial ecology and physiology at low and subzero temperatures. Moreover, some of the frozen ecosystems such as permafrost constitute major global carbon and nitrogen storages, but can also act as sources of the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this book we summarize state of the art knowledge on whether environmental changes are met by a flexible microbial community retaining its function, or if the altered conditions also render the community in a state of altered properties that affect the Earth’s element cycles and climate. This book brings together research on the cryosphere’s microbiota including permafrost, glaciers, and sea ice in Arctic and Antarctic regions. Different spatial scales and levels of complexity are considered, spanning from ecosystem level to pure culture studies of model microbes in the laboratory. It aims to attract a wide range of parties with interest in the effect of climate change and/or low temperatures on microbial nutrient cycling and physiology.
Ice is melting around the world and glaciers are disappearing. Water, which has been solid for thousands and even millions of years, is being released into streams, rivers, lakes and oceans. Embedded in this new fluid water, and now being released, are ancient microbes whose effects on today's organisms and ecosystems is unknown and unpredictable. These long sleeping microbes are becoming physiologically active and may accelerate global climate change. This book explores the emergence of these microbes. The implications for terrestrial life and the life that might exist elsewhere in the universe are explored. Key Selling Points: Explores the role of long frozen ancient microbes will have when released due to global warming Describes how ice preserves microbes and microbial genomes for thousands or millions of years Reviews work done on permafrost microbiology Identifies potential health hazards and environmental risks Examines implications for the search for extraterrestrial life.
Microbiome Under Changing Climate: Implications and Solutions presents the latest biotechnological interventions for the judicious use of microbes to ensure optimal agricultural yield. Summarizing aspects of vulnerability, adaptation and amelioration of climate impact, this book provides an important resource for understanding microbes, plants and soil in pursuit of sustainable agriculture and improved food security. It emphasizes the interaction between climate and soil microbes and their potential role in promoting advanced sustainable agricultural solutions, focusing on current research designed to use beneficial microbes such as plant growth promoting microorganisms, fungi, endophytic microbes, and more. Changes in climatic conditions influence all factors of the agricultural ecosystem, including adversely impacting yield both in terms of quantity and nutritional quality. In order to develop resilience against climatic changes, it is increasingly important to understand the effect on the native micro-flora, including the distribution of methanogens and methanotrophs, nutrient content and microbial biomass, among others. Demonstrates the impact of climate change on secondary metabolites of plants and potential responses Incorporates insights on microflora of inhabitant soil Explores mitigation processes and their modulation by sustainable methods Highlights the role of microbial technologies in agricultural sustainability
Volume 2 : Microbes for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem
Author: Deepak G. Panpatte
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe “agriculturally beneficial.” The book’s primary focus is on microbes that are essentially “hidden miniature packages of nature” that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors’ extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
Soil microbes influence the global carbon cycle via their role in the decomposition and formation of soil organic matter. Thus, rates of ecosystem processes such as primary production, soil respiration, and pedogenesis are sensitive to changes in the aggregate functional traits of the entire microbial community. To predict the magnitude and direction of microbial feedbacks on climate change, it is necessary to identify the physiological, ecological, and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie microbes' responses to altered temperature and rainfall. Therefore, I examined microbial community composition and function in relation to manipulations of resource availability and precipitation in two contrasting ecosystems: a tropical rainforest at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, and a semi-arid grassland in central Texas. I conducted a leaf litter decomposition experiment at La Selva to identify the physiological constraints on microbial allocation to extracellular enzymes, which degrade organic matter. I found strong evidence that microbial enzyme production is decoupled from foliar stoichiometry, consistent with weak links between leaf litter nutrients and decomposition rates at the pan-tropical scale. Next, to examine whether ecological trade-offs within microbial communities may drive shifts in carbon cycling at local spatial scales, I quantified changes in soil fungal and bacterial community composition in response to an in situ precipitation exclusion experiment I established at La Selva. Although drought-induced shifts in community structure were small, large increases in biomass-specific respiration rates were observed under dry conditions. These findings suggest that physiological adjustments to drought may constitute an important feedback on climate change in wet tropical forests. Finally, I focused on microbial community responses to climate change within a meta-community framework, using a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate how dispersal shapes bacterial community structure along a natural rainfall gradient in central Texas. I found that soils from the wet end of the precipitation gradient exhibited more plastic functional responses to altered water availability. However, soil bacterial community composition was resistant to changes in rainfall and dispersal, preventing functional acclimatization to precipitation regime. Together, the results of these experiments emphasize the potential for physiological plasticity or microevolutionary shifts within microbial populations to drive ecosystem carbon cycling under climate change.