Essay from the year 2002 in the subject Geography / Earth Science - Meteorology, Aeronomy, Climatology, grade: 1.1 (A), Oxford University (New College), 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: Incl. Bibliography, abstract: Climates have changed and still are constantly changing at all scales, from local to global, and over varying time-spans. There have been, however, surges of change over time which meteorologists and earth scientists are continually trying to clarify and explain. Global climatic change due to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases has dominated the environmental agenda since the mid 1980s and has engendered considerable international political debate. There is no doubt that over the last 100 years or so, human action has significantly increased the atmospheric concentrations of several gases that are closely related to global temperature. It seems likely that these increased concentrations, which are said to continue to rise in the near future, are already affecting global climate, but our poor knowledge and understanding of the workings of the global heat balance make the current and future situation uncertain. Since the atmosphere is intimately linked to the workings of the biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere, the projected changes in climate will have significant effects on all aspects of the natural world in which we live. Many ecological systems will be dramatically changed by global warming and this might lead to changes or even loss of biodiversity.
The effects of climate change on ecosystems are complex. The impact on the species and habitats protected by the Bern Convention may differ widely, depending on the species, their habitats and location. This publication includes six expert reports presenting concrete measures for addressing the vulnerability of Europe's natural heritage in the face of climate change and its effects, and how this heritage must adapt in order to survive. This publication reproduces the full text of Recommendation 135 (2008) on addressing the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, adopted by the Standing Committee of the Bern Convention in November 2008, which stresses the urgent need to tackle the impact of climate change on biological diversity and on its conservation. With this publication, the Council of Europe aims to increase awareness about the links between biodiversity and climate, and emphasise the large potential for synergies when addressing biodiversity loss and climate change in an integrated manner.
This book provides a strategic assessment of the vulnerability of Australia’s biodiversity (primarily terrestrial) to climate change and suggests ways that policy and management can deal with the threats to biodiversity associated with climate change. It begins with a long-time perspective on the evolution of Australia’s biota—why Australia is so species-rich, why its biodiversity is unique, and why the conservation of this biodiversity is so important. It goes on to describe the two centuries of acute change since European settlement—the ultimate drivers of current changes in Australia’s biodiversity and the observed changes in diversity at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels. The discussion of climate change itself is organized around the global and the Australian scales, describing the climate changes that have already been observed over the last one to two centuries and outlining the range of projections for Australia for the rest of this century. The ways in which climate change is already affecting Australia’s biota and will potentially affect it in future are described in considerable detail. The book then focuses strongly on how to reduce the vulnerability of Australia’s biodiversity to climate change, beginning with a description of current management principles, and an analysis of the current set of conservation strategies and tools and the current policy and institutional landscape for biodiversity conservation. Building on a set of fundamental ecological principles, the focus then shifts to ways in which adaptive capacity can be enhanced—modified and new management approaches, innovative governance systems and a much larger resource base. Finally, a set of five key messages and policy directions pulls together the major conclusions arising from the assessment.
The physical and biological impacts of climate change are dramatic and broad-ranging. People who care about the planet and manage natural resources urgently need a synthesis of our rapidly growing understanding of these issues. In this all-new sequel to the 2005 volume Climate Change andBiodiversity, leading experts in the field summarize observed changes, assess what the future holds, and offer suggested responses. Edited by distinguished conservationist Thomas E. Lovejoy and climate change biologist Lee Hannah, this comprehensive volume includes the latest research and explores emerging topics. From extinction risk to ocean acidification, the future of the Amazon to changes in ecosystem services, and geoengineering to the power of ecosystem restoration, this volume captures the sweep of climate change transformation of the biosphere. An authoritative, up-to-date reference, this is the new benchmark synthesis for climate change scientists, conservationists, managers, policymakers, and educators.
This book comprehensively describes essential research and projects on climate change and biodiversity. Moreover, it includes contributions on how to promote the climate agenda and biodiversity conservation at the local level. Climate change as a whole and global warming in particular are known to have a negative impact on biodiversity in three main ways. Firstly, increases in temperatures are detrimental to a number of organisms, especially those in sensitive habitats such as coral reefs and rainforests. Secondly, the pressures posed by a changing climate may lead to sets of responses in areas as varied as phenology, range and physiology of living organisms, often leading to changes in their lifecycles (especially but not only in reproduction), losses in productivity or even death. In some cases, the very survival of very sensitive species may be endangered. Thirdly, the impacts of climate change on biodiversity will be felt in the short term with regard to some species and ecosystems, but also in the medium and long term in many biomes. Indeed, if left unchecked, some of these impacts may be irreversible. Many individual governments, financial institutes and international donors are currently spending billions of dollars on projects addressing climate change and biodiversity, but with little coordination. Quite often, the emphasis is on adaptation efforts, with little emphasis on the connections between physio-ecological changes and the lifecycles and metabolisms of fauna and flora, or the influence of poor governance on biodiversity. As such, there is a recognized need to not only better understand the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, but to also identify, test and implement measures aimed at managing the many risks that climate change poses to fauna, flora and micro-organisms. In particular, the question of how to restore and protect ecosystems from the impact of climate change also has to be urgently addressed. This book was written to address this need. The respective papers explore matters related to the use of an ecosystem-based approach to increase local adaptation capacity, consider the significance of a protected areas network in preserving biodiversity in a changing northern European climate, and assess the impacts of climate change on specific species, including wild terrestrial animals. The book also presents a variety of case studies such as the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative, the effects of climate change on the biodiversity of Aleppo pine forest in Senalba (Algeria), climate change and biodiversity response in the Niger Delta region, and the effects of forest fires on the biodiversity and the soil characteristics of tropical peatlands in Indonesia. This is a truly interdisciplinary publication, and will benefit all scholars, social movements, practitioners and members of governmental agencies engaged in research and/or executing projects on climate change and biodiversity around the world.
Abstract: Forest ecosystems provide a variety of services, from climate regulation to biodiversity conservation. Temporary land cover variations such as those related to forest management can contribute to climate change through both biogeochemical (carbon, warming) and biophysical (albedo, cooling) mechanisms. As global rising demand for biomass for energy and materials can contribute to biodiversity losses, there is an evident need for integrated assessments of climate and biodiversity impacts to investigate possible trade-offs and synergies. We explore the integration of impacts on climate change and biodiversity from forest harvest for three case studies based on forest plantations in Norway. We focus on impacts from land disturbance after clear-cutting using three plots of one ha each of homogeneous forest in two ecoregions in Norway involving three different tree species: spruce, pine and birch. We use existing ecoregion specific characterization factors (CFs) to quantify occupation, short-term and long-term transformation impacts of land use on biodiversity loss for five taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and plants at regional and global level. For climate change impacts, we quantify the contributions of CO2 fluxes and changes in albedo. We estimate CFs for two complementary climate metrics, namely global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature change potential (GTP) for time horizons of 20 and 100years and quantify impacts in CO2 equivalents. We pursue the integration of impacts on climate and biodiversity from a time perspective: very short (GWP20 and land occupation), medium (GWP100 and land transformation within 100years) and long (GTP100 and land transformation after 100years). We find CFs from −0.21 to 1.6kgCO2 -eq./kgCO2 for carbon emissions, and from −0.03 to −1.4kgCO2 -eq./kgCO2 for albedo changes, while net characterized impacts range from −44.8tCO2 -eq./ha (GTP100, spruce) to 93.25tCO2 -eq./ha (GWP20, spruce). Damages to biodiversity range from 4.76*10 −13 to 6.24*10 −8 global species eq. lost per ton of carbon harvested. Our results reinforce the notion that spatially and temporally explicit analyses are vital when assessing life-cycle impacts from land derived products. We show that the existing set of multiple and complementary indicators for climate change and biodiversity impacts can be integrated into a common framework to better inform about the complex heterogeneities of the forest ecosystem response to disturbances. We argue for a more frequent consideration of integrated impacts on biodiversity and climate change from forestry operations to better highlight possible co-benefits or adverse side-effects of forest management strategies.
Linkages at International, National and Local Levels
Author: Frank Maes
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ŠToday, climate change is already highly impacting on biodiversity. This adds to existing stress on biodiversity. Current extinction rates are unprecedented in history. This book addresses the many legal issues involved from a variety of perspectives b
Reports and Guidance Developed Under the Bern Convention
Author: Council of Europe
Publisher: Council of Europe
"The effects of climate change on ecosystems are complex. The impact on the species and habitats protected by the Bern Convention may differ widely, depending on the species, their habitats and location. This publication includes six expert reports presenting concrete measures for addressing the vulnerability of Europe's natural heritage in the face of climate change and its effects, and how this heritage must adapt in order to survive. This publication reproduces the full text of Recommendation 135 (2008) on addressing the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, adopted by the Standing Committee of the Bern Convention in November 2008, which stresses the urgent need to tackle the impact of climate change on biological diversity and on its conservation. With this publication, the Council of Europe aims to increase awareness about the links between biodiversity and climate, and emphasise the large potential for synergies when addressing biodiversity loss and climate change in an integrated manner."--P.  of cover.
Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Lessons from the Field
Author: Angela Andrade Pérez
With climate change now a certainty, the question is how much change there will be and what can be done about it. One of the answers is through adaptation. Many of the lessons that are being learned in adaptation are from success stories from the field. This publication contains eleven case studies covering different ecosystems and regions around the world. Its aim is to summarize some current applications of the Ecosystem-Based Adaptation concept and its tools used around the world, and also draw lessons from experiences in conservation adaptation.