Characterization of Fibres and Polymers addresses an integral part of fiber and polymer manufacturing processes that is crucial in helping manufacturers ensure that final products achieve intended specifications. The characterization of fiber and polymers is needed for attributes including molecular weight, morphology, dyeing behavior, tensile, optical and thermal behavior. This book covers a wide range of characterization techniques, including thermal, X-ray diffraction, solubility, tensile, optical, hygroscopic and particle size distribution. Introductions and definitions are provided where beneficial to make topics accessible to a broad range of readers in both academia and industry. Addressing advances from the fields of bioscience, polymer science, material science, and textile science, this book is wide in scope, drawing on the latest research to provide details of characterization techniques and equipment. Provides a thorough description of the material quality control process, including the latest industry practice Presents material characterization at all levels, from the atomic level to surface structure Covers technical advice on natural fiber characterization methods, including XRD, XPS, TGA, SEM, TEM, AFM, Contact angle, Particle size analysis, FTIR, and NMR
Fibre Types, Materials, Fabrication and Applications
Author: Christian-Alexander Bunge
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
"Polymer Optical Fibres: Fibre Types, Materials, Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications" explores polymer optical fibers, specifically their materials, fabrication, characterization, measurement techniques, and applications. Optical effects, including light propagation, degrading effects of attenuation, scattering, and dispersion, are explained. Other important parameters like mechanical strength, operating temperatures, and processability are also described. Polymer optical fibers (POF) have a number of advantages over glass fibers, such as low cost, flexibility, low weight, electromagnetic immunity, good bandwidth, simple installation, and mechanical stability. Provides systematic and comprehensive coverage of materials, fabrication, properties, measurement techniques, and applications of POFFocuses on industry needs in communication, illumination and sensors, the automotive industry, and medical and biotechnologyFeatures input from leading experts in POF technology, with experience spanning optoelectronics, polymer, and textilesExplains optical effects, including light propagation, degrading effects of attenuation, scattering, and dispersion
Written by expert contributors from the academic and industrial sectors, this book presents traditional and modern approaches to polymer characterization and analysis. The emphasis is on pragmatics, problem solving and property determination; real-world applications provide a context for key concepts. The characterizations focus on organic polymer and polymer product microstructure and composition. Approaches molecular characterization and analysis of polymers from the viewpoint of problem-solving and polymer property characterization, rather than from a technique championing approach Focuses on providing a means to ascertaining the optimum approach or technique(s) to solve a problem/measure a property, and thereby develop an analytical competence in the molecular characterization and analysis of real-world polymer products Provides background on polymer chemistry and microstructure, discussions of polymer chain, morphology, degradation, and product failure and additive analysis, and considers the supporting roles of modeling and high-throughput analysis
Manufactured Fibre Technology provides an accessible and comprehensive treatment of the chemical, physical and mechanical processes involved in the production of all important commodity manufactured fibres and most of the industrial fibres. The emphasis is on the fundamental principles and industrial aspects of production. Latest developments in manufactured fibres in terms of manufacturing processes, characteristics and their applications are also covered. Manufactured Fibre Technology is designed around twenty chapters with a balance of basic principles and production of specific fibre types. Newer and industrially relevant areas such as high speed spinning, production of speciality fibres (including microfibres), computer simulation of spinning, high performance fibres, spun-bonding and melt-blowing, and re-use of fibre waste are included. The structure, property and application areas of each fibre type are also discussed, thus providing a broad understanding of the subject. In addition, various aspects related to the testing and characterisation of fibres and polymers are reviewed. This book is an invaluable resource to students, lecturers, industrial technologists and researchers in this subject area.
Production, Characterization and Innovative Applications
Author: Nurhan Onar Camlibel
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Polyester is one of the most important polymers for fibers and composites. Significant developments in nanoparticle-doped polyester composites, polyester recycling, flame-retardant unsaturated polyester resins, and application of polyester for construction and automotive industry are currently carried out. Thus, this book provides leading edge research on improvements of functional properties of polyester, modifications of unsaturated polyester resins, and polyester (especially recycled polyester) usage in construction and in automotive application areas in the form of fiber, resin, and composite. The book also covers the characterization of unique features of polyester found by mechanical, chemical, physical, microstructural, and thermal analyses. This book intends to provide an understanding of the developments of functional polyester production, synthesis, and characterization and support to many academic researchers and graduate students in textile, polymer, composite, chemical science, and research and development managers in recycling and composite applications of polyester in the construction and automotive industry.
Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials is a critical review and a concise evaluation of the application of thermal analysis in polymer science and engineering. This book is divided into nine chapters that specifically tackle the instrumentation, theory, and a wide variety of applications of thermal characterization. The introductory chapters provide an overview of all aspects of thermal analytical methods and apparatus and the theory underlying the basic principles of thermal analysis. These chapters also examine the theories and functions of state for thermometry, dilatometry, thermomechanical analysis, calorimetry, thermogravimetry. These topics are followed by a discussion on single-component and multicomponent systems and their phase transitions, as influenced by concentration, pressure, deformation, molecular weight, and copolymerization. The subsequent chapters explore the influence of important chemical and physical parameters on the glass transition, crystallization, and melting of thermoplastic materials. The discussion then shifts to the theoretical aspects of polymer-polymer compatibility, phase separation, and miscibility in mixed polymer systems. This book further considers the thermal analysis in thermosets, elastomers, and fibers. The concluding chapters present the methods of obtaining information on the relative flammability properties of polymers, for screening fire retardant additives, and for studying the mechanism of flame inhibition. These chapters also look into the thermal analysis of antioxidants, stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, impact modifiers, and fire retardants. Polymer scientists and researchers will find this book invaluable.
The last decade or so has seen a dramatic increase in the amount of detailed structural information available from a range of experimental techniques. Exciting new techniques such as atomic force microscopy have become widely available, while the potential of established methods like X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy has been greatly enhanced by powerful new sources and analytical methods. Progress in computing has also had a widespread impact: in areas such as neutron scattering, large data sets can now be manipulated more readily. The software supplied with commercial instruments generally provides more sophisti cated analytical facilities, while time-resolved X-ray studies rely on rapid data handling capabilities. The polymer scientist is faced with an expanding array of experimental tools for addressing both fundamental science and industrial problems. This work reviews some recent developments in structural techniques, with the aim of presenting the current 'state of the art' in a selection of areas.
This volume documents the proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Polyimides and Other High Temperature Polymers: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, held in Newark, New Jersey, December 3-6, 2001. Polyimides possess many desirable attributes, so this class of materials has found applications in many technologies ranging from
Intended as a practical guide for polymer technologists, engineers and analysts in the plastics, composites and rubber fields, this title describes a range of techniques and strategies for compositional and failure analysis of polymeric materials and products. Numerous examples illustrate the application of analytical methods for solving commonly encountered problems in the polymer industry. The reader is guided towards the most appropriate method of analysis and measurement and the most likely reasons for the failure. Areas covered include: * Migration and interaction of additives * Mechanical stress and stress cracking * Crazing and fracture * Residual stress and weld lines * Contamination and discoloration Numerous pedagogical methods, illustrative flow diagrams, figures and tables are used throughout the text to make it an invaluable guide to all analysts and polymer engineers in industrial or academic laboratories.
Failure Analysis in Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites covers key aspects of fracture and failure in natural/synthetic fiber reinforced polymer based composite materials, ranging from crack propagation, to crack growth, and from notch-size effect, to damage-tolerant design. The book describes a broad range of techniques and strategies for the compositional and failure analysis of polymeric materials and products. It also illustrates the application of analytical methods for solving commonly encountered problems. Topics of interest include failure analysis, mechanical and physical properties, structural health monitoring, durability and life prediction, modelling of damage processes of natural fiber, synthetic fibers, and more. Written by leading experts in the field, and covering composite materials developed from different natural fibers and their hybridization with synthetic fibers, the book's chapters provide cutting-edge, up-to-date research on the characterization, analysis and modelling of composite materials. Contains contributions from leading experts in the field Discusses recent progress on failure analysis, SHM, durability, life prediction and the modelling of damage in natural fiber-based composite materials Covers experimental, analytical and numerical analysis Provides detailed and comprehensive information on mechanical properties, testing methods and modelling techniques
The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication. This 3rd volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of renewable materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: structural and biodegradation characterization of supramolecular PCL/HAP nano-composites; different characterization of solid bio-fillers based agricultural waste material; poly (ethylene-terephthalate) reinforced with hemp fibers; poly (lactic acid) thermoplastic composites from renewable materials; chitosan –based composite materials: fabrication and characterization; the use of flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites in the externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting monitored by transient thermography and optical techniques; recycling and reuse of fiber reinforced polymer wastes in concrete composite materials; analysis of damage in hybrid composites subjected to ballistic impacts; biofiber reinforced acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) biocomposites; biopolyamides and high performance natural fiber-reinforced biocomposites; impact of recycling on the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of wood fiber based HDPE and PLA composites; lignocellulosic fibers composites: an overview; biodiesel derived raw glycerol to value added products; thermo-mechanical characterization of sustainable structural composites; novel pH sensitive composite hydrogel based on functionalized starch/clay for the controlled release of amoxicillin; preparation and characterization of biobased thermoset polymers from renewable resources; influence of natural fillers size and shape into mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites; composite of biodegradable polymer blends of PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber - the effects of ionizing radiation; packaging composite materials from renewable resources; physicochemical properties of ash based geopolymer concrete; a biopolymer derived from castor oil polyurethane; natural polymer based biomaterials; physical and mechanical properties of polymer membranes from renewable resources
Low molar mass organic materials and polymers exhibit a range of physical properties that are dependent on their ability to undergo self organisation. The degree and extent of the molecular organisation depends on a complex interplay of inter and intra molecular interactions. Polymer Structure Characterization: From Nano to Macro Organization discusses in a systematic fashion the way in which molecular interactions influence observed morphologies. Topics include: organic crystals, liquid crystals, plastic crystals, polymer morphology, polymer crystallization, amorphous glassy materials, polymer surfaces, polymer phase separation and structure, and a brief introduction to organisation in naturally occurring materials. This textbook is primarily aimed at polymer and material scientists but would also be of interest to chemists and physicists studying the properties of organic materials. It provides complimentary material for a range of courses in materials science, molecular chemistry and chemical physics.
Hybrid Polymer Composite Materials: Properties and Characterisation presents the latest on these composite materials that can best be described as materials that are comprised of synthetic polymers and biological/inorganic/organic derived constituents. The combination of unique properties that emerge as a consequence of the particular arrangement and interactions between the different constituents provides immense opportunities for advanced material technologies. This series of four volumes brings an interdisciplinary effort to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications, and performance of these advanced materials, with this volume focusing on their properties and characterization. Provides a clear understanding of the present state-of-the-art and the growing utility of hybrid polymer composite materials Includes contributions from world renowned experts and discusses the combination of different kinds of materials procured from diverse resources Discusses their synthesis, chemistry, processing, fundamental properties, and applications Provides insights on the potential of hybrid polymer composite materials for advanced applications
Natural Fiber Reinforced Vinyl Ester and Vinyl Polymer Composites: Characterization, Properties and Applications discusses recent advances on the development, characterization and application of natural fiber vinyl ester and vinyl polymers composites. Various types of vinyl ester and vinyl based polymers, such as poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) are discussed. Chapters focus on different composite fabrication processes, such as compression moulding, hand lay-up, and pultrusion processes. Key themes covered include the properties and characterization of vinyl ester and vinyl polymers composites reinforced by natural fibers. The effect of fiber treatment and coupling agents on mechanical and physical properties of these materials is also evaluated. In addition to a determination of physical and mechanical properties, studies on thermal, degradation, swelling behavior, and the morphological properties of natural fiber reinforced vinyl ester and vinyl polymer composites is also presented. Presents the importance of vinyl ester and vinyl-based polymers as matrices in natural fiber composites Provides a detailed and comprehensive review on the development, characterization and applications of natural fiber vinyl ester and vinyl polymers composites Looks at recent fabrication techniques and the mechanical properties of materials Contains contributions from leading experts in the field
From Nano to Macro Organization in Small Molecules and Polymers
Author: Richard A Pethrick
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
The different physical properties displayed by low molar mass organic materials and polymers are a result of their molecular organisation. In order to understand the structure – property relationship of a material it is necessary to first look at the interactions at a molecular level. This new edition of Polymer Structure Characterization provides readers with the background needed to understand the factors that influence molecular organization and how this affects the morphology and bulk physical properties of a material. In order to introduce the concepts, the book first looks at small molecular systems and builds up to complex macromolecular systems. The second edition has been fully revised and updated to include new examples and references. Topics covered include: organic crystals, liquid crystals, plastic crystals, polymer crystal growth, amorphous glassy materials, polymer surfaces and interfaces, colloids and molecular organization in liquids as well as two new chapters on self-assembly and biopolymer systems. The book is intended to provide complimentary material for a range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in materials science, molecular chemistry and chemical physics. In addition to polymer and material scientists, the book would also be of interest to chemists and physicists studying the properties of organic materials.
The techniques which are particularly relevant to polymer characterisation are evaluated in this new report. For each technique the author describes the method of operation and the output obtained, and then considers its application to polymer characterisation. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.
Synthesis, Properties, Characterization, and Applications
Author: Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
State-of-the-art overview on bioepoxy polymers as well as their blends and composites -- covering all aspects from fundamentals to applications! Bioepoxy polymers is an emerging area and have attracted more and more attention due to their biodegradability and good thermo-mechanical performance. In recent years, research progress has been made in synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications of bioepoxy blends and composites. Bioepoxy polymers are very promising candidates to replace the traditional thermosetting nonbiodegradable polymers. Bio-Based Epoxy Polymers, Blends and Composites summaries recent research progress on bioepoxy polymers as well as their blends and composites. It covers aspects from synthesis, processing, various characterization techniques to broad spectrum of applications. It provides a correlation of physical properties with macro, micro and nanostructures of the materials. Moreover, research trends, future directions, and opportunities are also discussed. Attracts attention: Bioepoxy polymers are environmentally friendly and considered as a promising candidate to replace the traditional thermosetting nonbiodegradable polymers Highly application-oriented: Bioepoxy polymers can be used in a broad range of applications such as polymer foams, construction, aerospace, automobiles, self-healing systems One-stop reference: Covers all aspects of bioepoxy polymer, their blends and composites, such as synthesis, properties, processing, characterization and applications Broad audience: Attracts attention from both academia and industry