The past 100 years of accelerator-based research have led the field from first insights into the structure of atoms to the development and confirmation of the Standard Model of physics. Accelerators have been a key tool in developing our understanding of the elementary particles and the forces that govern their interactions. This book describes the past 100 years of accelerator development with a special focus on the technological advancements in the field, the connection of the various accelerator projects to key developments and discoveries in the Standard Model, how accelerator technologies open the door to other applications in medicine and industry, and finally presents an outlook of future accelerator projects for the coming decades.
Volume 10 in the series of the annual journal Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology (RAST), will be its final volume. Its theme is 'The Future of Accelerators'. This volume, together with previous 9 volumes, gives readers a complete picture as well as detailed technical information about the accelerator field, and its many driving and fascinating aspects.This volume has 17 articles. The first 15 articles have a different approach from the previous volumes. They emphasize the more personal views, perspectives and advice from the frontier researchers rather than provide a review or survey of a specific subfield. This emphasis is more aligned with the theme of the current volume. The other two articles are dedicated respectively to Leon Lederman and Burton Richter, two prominent leaders of our community who left us last year.
Recent advancements in generation of intense X-ray laser ultrashort pulses open opportunities for particle acceleration in solid-state plasmas. Wakefield acceleration in crystals or carbon nanotubes shows promise of unmatched ultra-high accelerating gradients and possibility to shape the future of high energy physics colliders. This book summarizes the discussions of the 'Workshop on Beam Acceleration in Crystals and Nanostructures' (Fermilab, June 24-25 , 2019), presents next steps in theory and modeling and outlines major physics and technology challenges toward proof-of-principle demonstration experiments.
The monumental discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC marked the beginning of a new era in the high energy physics. Although the particle spectrum of the Standard Model is now complete with the Higgs boson, the hierarchy problem and the lack of explanation of the origin of dark matter imply that a new Beyond the Standard Model physics should exist. There is however no clear indication (experimental or otherwise) of the energy scale at which this new physics should appear. Current results from the LHC experiments have shown no unpredicted effects up to pp collision energies of 13 TeV. If not observed directly at the LHC, the new physics may reveal itself through deviations of Higgs properties from their Standard Model expectations, or it may become directly accessible only at new, higher-energy accelerator facilities. It is then of primary importance to have a comprehensive review of the available and planned accelerators and their design, physics motivation and expected performance. This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles — originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics — are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.
Hadron therapy is a groundbreaking new method of treating cancer. Boasting greater precision than other therapies, this therapy is now utilised in many clinical settings and the field is growing. More than 50 medical facilities currently perform (or are planned to perform) this treatment, with this number set to double by 2020. This new text covers the most recent advances in hadron therapy, exploring the physics, technology, biology, diagnosis, clinical applications, and economics behind the therapy. Providing essential and up-to-date information on recent developments in the field, this book will be of interest to current and aspiring specialists from a wide range of backgrounds. Features: Multidisciplinary approach: explores the physics, IT (big data), biology, clinical applications from imaging to treatment, clinical trials, and economics associated with hadron therapy Contains the latest research and developments in this rapidly evolving field, and integrates them into the current global challenges for radiation therapy Edited by recognised leaders in the field, including the co-ordinator of ENLIGHT (the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy), with chapter contributions from international leading experts in the field
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Understanding of protons and neutrons, or "nucleons"â€"the building blocks of atomic nucleiâ€"has advanced dramatically, both theoretically and experimentally, in the past half century. A central goal of modern nuclear physics is to understand the structure of the proton and neutron directly from the dynamics of their quarks and gluons governed by the theory of their interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and how nuclear interactions between protons and neutrons emerge from these dynamics. With deeper understanding of the quark-gluon structure of matter, scientists are poised to reach a deeper picture of these building blocks, and atomic nuclei themselves, as collective many-body systems with new emergent behavior. The development of a U.S. domestic electron-ion collider (EIC) facility has the potential to answer questions that are central to completing an understanding of atoms and integral to the agenda of nuclear physics today. This study assesses the merits and significance of the science that could be addressed by an EIC, and its importance to nuclear physics in particular and to the physical sciences in general. It evaluates the significance of the science that would be enabled by the construction of an EIC, its benefits to U.S. leadership in nuclear physics, and the benefits to other fields of science of a U.S.-based EIC.
How can the ecosystem of tech startups—utilizing direct access to significant capital and the world’s most cutting-edge technology—make more than just massive profits, but also make a difference to humanity by helping to solve the 21st Century’s Grand Challenges? From healthcare systems unprepared for global pandemics and fossilized education systems, to AI harming people’s privacy and voters misguided by fake news... We wondered how can we help. Six months in, endless nights and weekends buried behind computer or on Google Meets, we have put our learnings on paper and decided them to share with you. Are you a company founder wondering how can you make a positive impact? Or talented expert thinking how can you take part in solving real big problems? Or just simply someone not so sure if others will solve big problems for you? Here’s our report on the main problems, key players and ideas of how can you take part.
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies