New Methodologies and Evolving Regulatory Landscapes
Author: J. Rick Turner
At a time when the field of cardiac safety is going through important changes, this unique book provides the rationale for, and cutting-edge explanations of, new regulatory landscapes that will likely govern cardiac safety assessments globally for the foreseeable future. Exposure-response modeling is already being accepted by regulatory agencies in lieu of the traditional Thorough QT/QTc Study, and the Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay initiative is well under way. Developments in the field of cardiovascular safety are also described and discussed in the book. These include the search for more efficient ways to exonerate new drugs for type 2 diabetes from an unacceptable cardiovascular liability, how best to address off-target blood pressure increases induced by noncardiovascular drugs, and the continued evolution of the discipline of Cardio-oncology. “a resource that will likely serve as a standard for years to come” - Dr Jonathan Seltzer Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, 2017;51(2):180 “I have no hesitation in recommending this book as a valuable reference source” - Dr Rashmi Shah Journal for Clinical Studies, 2017;9(1):62-63
Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance
Author: J. Rick Turner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The serious nature of cardiovascular adverse drug reactions occurring in patients makes assessment of a drug's cardiac safety profile a high priority during both development and post-approval monitoring. Integrated Cardiac Safety provides necessary guidance and methodology for professionals assessing cardiac safety of drugs throughout all stages of the drug's life, from discovery and development through postmarketing research. This self-contained, reader-friendly text is valuable to professionals in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and CRO industries, pharmacologists, toxicologists, government officials, and students.
Drug Discovery and Evaluation has become a more and more difficult, expensive and time-consuming process. The effect of a new compound has to be detected by in vitro and in vivo methods of pharmacology. The activity spectrum and the potency compared to existing drugs have to be determined. As these processes can be divided up stepwise we have designed a book series "Drug Discovery and Evaluation" in the form of a recommendation document. The methods to detect drug targets are described in the first volume of this series "Pharmacological Assays" comprising classical methods as well as new technologies. Before going to man, the most suitable compound has to be selected by pharmacokinetic studies and experiments in toxicology. These preclinical methods are described in the second volume „Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assays". Only then are first studies in human beings allowed. Special rules are established for Phase I studies. Clinical pharmacokinetics are performed in parallel with human studies on tolerability and therapeutic effects. Special studies according to various populations and different therapeutic indications are necessary. These items are covered in the third volume: „Methods in Clinical Pharmacology".
The Propulsid and Seldane drug disasters could have easily been avoided with more rigorous safety pharmacology studies of these compounds prior to any human clinical trials. Unfortunately, safety pharmacology has been overlooked by all but a few developers. With recent drug withdrawals from the market and the implementation of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, safety pharmacology will become a more important phase in drug development. Safety Pharmacology in Pharmaceutical Development and Approval spells out the whys and hows of safety pharmacology testing. The book covers the background, history, and concerns that have evolved from lackluster safety pharmacology activities in the past. It details regulatory requirements, provides comprehensive information on study designs, and covers both the required battery of studies and the supplemental, follow-up battery. Until recently, pharmacovigilance has been product-rather than utilization-oriented and often invisible in clinical medicine. It is clear that definitive safety pharmacology standards are needed to combat the increase in adverse reactions seen in the last 20 years. Giving you a head start in this emerging field, Safety Pharmacology in Pharmaceutical Development and Approval addresses how best to implement ICH safety standards and how to integrate pharmacology safety evaluations into existing safety evaluations.
Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assays ; with 125 Tables
Author: H. Gerhard Vogel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book is a landmark in the continuously changing world of drugs. It is essential reading for scientists and managers in the pharmaceutical industry who are involved in drug finding, drug development and decision making in the development process.
With its focus on emerging concerns of kinase and GPCR-mediated antitarget effects, this vital reference for drug developers addresses one of the hot topics in drug safety now and in future. Divided into three major parts, the first section deals with novel technologies and includes the utility of adverse event reports to drug discovery, the translational aspects of preclinical safety findings, broader computational prediction of drug side-effects, and a description of the serotonergic system. The main part of the book looks at some of the most common antitarget-mediated side effects, focusing on hepatotoxicity in drug safety, cardiovascular toxicity and signaling effects via kinase and GPCR anti-targets. In the final section, several case studies of recently developed drugs illustrate how to prevent anti-target effects and how big pharma deals with them if they occur. The more recent field of systems pharmacology has gained prominence and this is reflected in chapters dedicated to the utility in deciphering and modeling anti-targets. The final chapter is concerned with those compounds that inadvertently elicit CNS mediated adverse events, including a pragmatic description of ways to mitigate these types of safety risks. Written as a companion to the successful book on antitargets by Vaz and Klabunde, this new volume focuses on recent progress and new classes, methods and case studies that were not previously covered.
The modern pharmacopeia has enormous power to alleviate disease, and owes its existence almost entirely to the work of the pharmaceutical industry. This book provides an introduction to the way the industry goes about the discovery and development of new drugs. The first part gives a brief historical account from its origins in the mediaeval apothecaries’ trade, and discusses the changing understanding of what we mean by disease, and what therapy aims to achieve, as well as summarising case histories of the discovery and development of some important drugs. The second part focuses on the science and technology involved in the discovery process: the stages by which a promising new chemical entity is identified, from the starting point of a medical need and an idea for addressing it. A chapter on biopharmaceuticals, whose discovery and development tend to follow routes somewhat different from synthetic compounds, is included here, as well as accounts of patent issues that arise in the discovery phase, and a chapter on research management in this environment. The third section of the book deals with drug development: the work that has to be undertaken to turn the drug candidate that emerges from the discovery process into a product on the market. The definitive introduction to how a pharmaceutical company goes about its business of discovering and developing drugs. The second edition has a new editor: Professor Raymond Hill ● non-executive director of Addex Pharmaceuticals, Covagen and of Orexo AB ● Visiting Industrial Professor of Pharmacology in the University of Bristol ● Visiting Professor in the School of Medical and Health Sciences at the University of Surrey ● Visiting Professor in Physiology and Pharmacology at the University of Strathclyde ● President and Chair of the Council of the British Pharmacological Society ● member of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics and the Advisory Council on Misuse of Drugs. New to this edition: Completely rewritten chapter on The Role of Medicinal Chemistry in the Drug Discovery Process. New topic - DMPK Optimization Strategy in drug discovery. New chapter on Scaffolds: Small globular proteins as antibody substitutes. Totally updated chapters on Intellectual Property and Marketing 50 new illustrations in full colour Features Accessible, general guide to pharmaceutical research and development. Examines the interfaces between cost and social benefit, quality control and mass production, regulatory bodies, patent management, and all interdisciplinary intersections essential to effective drug development. Written by a strong team of scientists with long experience in the pharmaceutical industry. Solid overview of all the steps from lab bench to market in an easy-to-understand way which will be accessible to non-specialists. From customer reviews of the previous edition: ‘... it will have everything you need to know on this module. Deeply referenced and, thus, deeply reliable. Highly Commended in the medicine category of the BMA 2006 medical book competition Winner of the Royal Society of Medicine Library Prize for Medical Book of the Year
A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Nonclinical Drug Development, Second Edition, is a valuable reference designed to provide a complete understanding of all aspects of nonclinical toxicology in the development of small molecules and biologics. This updated edition has been reorganized and expanded to include important topics such as stem cells in nonclinical toxicology, inhalation and dermal toxicology, pitfalls in drug development, biomarkers in toxicology, and more. Thoroughly updated to reflect the latest scientific advances and with increased coverage of international regulatory guidelines, this second edition is an essential and practical resource for all toxicologists involved in nonclinical testing in industry, academic, and regulatory settings. Provides unique content that is not always covered together in one comprehensive resource, including chapters on stem cells, abuse liability, biomarkers, inhalation toxicology, biostatistics, and more Updated with the latest international guidelines for nonclinical toxicology in both small and large molecules Incorporates practical examples in order to illustrate day-to-day activities and the expectations associated with working in nonclinical toxicology
Current regulatory guidelines for cardiac safety utilize hERG block and QT interval prolongation as risk markers. This strategy has been successful at preventing harmful drugs from being marketed, but criticized for leading to early withdrawal of potentially safe drugs. Here we collected a series of articles presenting new technological and conceptual advances, including refinement of ex vivo and in vitro assays, screens and models, and in silico approaches reflecting the increasing effort that has been put forward by regulatory agencies, industry, and academia to try and address the need of a more accurate, mechanistically-based paradigm of proarrhythmic potential of drugs. This Research Topic is dedicated to the memory of Dr. J. Jeremy Rice, our wonderful friend and colleague.
A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Preclinical Drug Development is a resource for toxicologists in industry and regulatory settings, as well as directors working in contract resource organizations, who need a thorough understanding of the drug development process. Incorporating real-life case studies and examples, the book is a practical guide that outlines day-to-day activities and experiences in preclinical toxicology. This multi-contributed reference provides a detailed picture of the complex and highly interrelated activities of preclinical toxicology in both small molecules and biologics. The book discusses discovery toxicology and the international guidelines for safety evaluation, and presents traditional and nontraditional toxicology models. Chapters cover development of vaccines, oncology drugs, botanic drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and more, as well as study development and personnel, the role of imaging in preclinical evaluation, and supporting materials for IND applications. By incorporating the latest research in this area and featuring practical scenarios, this reference is a complete and actionable guide to all aspects of preclinical drug testing. Chapters written by world-renowned contributors who are experts in their fields Includes the latest research in preclinical drug testing and international guidelines Covers preclinical toxicology in small molecules and biologics in one single source