The four essays in this book offer a sweeping reinterpretation of Latin American history as an aspect of the world-wide spread of capitalism in its commercial and industrial phases. Dr. Frank lays to rest the myth of Latin American feudalism, demonstrating in the process the impossibility of a bourgeois revolution in a part of the world which is already part and parcel of the capitalist system.
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Middle- and South America, grade: 2,0, University of Münster (Politikwissenschaft), 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: “Dependence is dead, long live dependence and the class struggle” thus the title of an article by the dependency theorist André Gunder Frank, published in 1974 in Latin American Perspectives. Indeed, it has often been stated that dependency theory has lost its significance in explaining underdevelopment and has thus been “relegated to footnote status in the field of development studies”. Yet, in recent years, a lot of scholars have attempted to refute this statement, claiming that dependency theory still has its use in development studies, even though they have identified a number of flaws. Emerging in parallel with other development theories in the 1950s, dependency theory mainly focuses on Latin America, the most important authors being Prebisch, Furtado, dos Santos, Frank and finally Cardoso and Faletto, whose theory this paper concentrates on. Most of the different approaches within dependency theory share several Marxist core assumptions, such as the construction of base (means and relations of production) and superstructure (the political, cultural and social consequences of these means and relations of production). On the international level, all politics, whether external or domestic, takes place within the framework of the capitalist world economy which determines the behavior of actors as well as patterns of interaction between them. In this paper, the question of whether dependency theory as presented by Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Enzo Faletto is still useful in explaining underdevelopment will be examined considering as example the events occurring in a typical example of an underdeveloped Latin American economy – Bolivia. The election of the left-wing populist Evo Morales potentially represents a paradigm shift for one of the poorest Latin American countries – a shift away from the neoliberal ideology towards a still capitalist regime with a socialist flavor to it (if one is to believe the declarations of Morales’s vice president Alvaro García Linera). Applying Cardoso and Faletto’s approach to the case of Bolivia reveals its strengths, but also some methodological as well as textual weaknesses. In order to show this, the first section will present their theory as exhibited in their publication Dependency and Development in Latin America and in an article published by Cardoso in the New Left Review in 1972. The second section focuses on the events in Bolivia, pointing at strong and weak points of the approach. Section four concludes.
Upon its publication in 1989, this was the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of the Latin American School of Development and an invaluable guide to the major Third World contribution to development theory. The four major strands in the work of Latin American Theorists are: structuralism, internal colonialism, marginality and dependency. Exploring all four in detail, and the interconnections between them, Cristobal Kay highlights the developed world’s over-reliance on, and partial knowledge of, dependency theory in its approach to development issues, and analyses the first major challenges to neo-classical and modernisation theories from the Third World.
The book traces the development of capitalism from its mercantile roots and examines its relationship to feudalism, colonialism-imperialism, internal colonialism in both the metropole and the periphery, class structure / stratification and socialism. Frank unfolds his thesis concisely and concretely, illustrating it with a firm grasp over historical material.
This definitive reader brings together seminal articles on development in Latin America. Tracing the concepts and major debates surrounding the issue, the text focuses on development theory through three contrasting historical perspectives: imperialism, underdevelopment and dependency, and globalization. By offering a rich array of essays from Latin American Perspectives, the book allows students to sample all the important trends in the field. A new general introduction and conclusion, along with part introductions, contextualize each selection. One of the leading figures in development studies, Ronald Chilcote shows in this text why work on imperialism dating to the turn of the twentieth century informs the controversies on dependency and underdevelopment during the 1960s and 1970s as well as the globalization debates of the past decade. If students are to understand development in Latin America, they must not only be familiar with historical examples and recognize that various theoretical perspectives affect our interpretation of events, they must be willing to keep an open mind. Thus, rather than setting out established premises, this reader offers different points of view, raising provocative questions about Latin America that remain largely unanswered even today. Students will come away from this rewarding collection ready to pursue new understanding through critical inquiry and thinking.
A Study of Dependency, Development and Underdevelopment
Author: Patricia Ruffin
Category: Political Science
Capitalism and Socialism in Cuba documents the history of the attempts by a small island nation to survive and gain respectability within an everchanging international political economy. Professor Ruffin presents a detailed account of the social, political, and economic forces affecting Cuba's prospects for development under both capitalism and socialism. Part one of the study focuses on Cuba's historical association with capitalism and the relationship that Cuba established with the United States. Part two of the study delineates the nature of Cuba-Soviet relations and deals exclusively with the question of socialist dependency. Professor Ruffin's study is a systematic analysis of the internal (race and class formations) and external (capitalism and socialism) factors that have thus far shaped Cuban history.
Why, while Europe, North America, and Australia have developed, have Africa, much of Asia, and Latin America remained underdeveloped? Andre Gunder Frank sets out to answer this basic question by showing how world capital accumulation has led to the differentiation of these regions within the single world-embracing economic system. Unequal exchange between regions, combined with the differential transformation of productive, social, and political relations within regions, has led to the capitalist development of some areas and to the underdevelopment of others.
Conceived as a response to the economic naïvety and implicit metropolitan bias of many 1950s and 60s studies of ‘the sociology of development’ , this volume, first published in 1975, provides actual field studies and theoretical reviews to indicate the directions which a conceptually more adequate study of developing societies should take. Much of the book reflects strongly the influence of Andre Gunder Frank, but the contributors adopt a critical attitude to his ideas, applying them in empirical situations within such African and American countries as Kenya, Guyana, Tanzania and Peru. Others pursue the lines of enquiry opened up by Latin American theories of economic ‘dependency’ and by the new school of French economic anthropology.
In recent years Latin Americanists have been among the most innovative and productive theorists about the uneven process of development. This collection of substantial selections from some of the most prominent theorists in the field represents a scholarly consolidation and reassessment of the controversies concerning the development of Latin America.Beginning with a historiographic overview, the editors emphasize the origins, evolution, and historical context of the development of each theoretical school (modernization, dependency and Marxism, corporatism, and bureaucratic authoritarianism), then present key selections drawn from the writings of major theorists, organized by school. Each selection is prefaced with a short editorial introduction that highlights the central themes to follow. A concluding section outlines the main debates surrounding each school and suggests new directions in theoretical development that may arise from criticism of the theories of authoritarianism and the search for democratic processes of development. The book's usefulness as a text is further enhanced by selected bibliographies that contain further readings on each development theory.Here is a single source for Latin Americanists who hope to interest and instruct their students in the rich theoretical traditions and debates in Latin American studies. It also provides a strong core volume for other courses on developing areas.