Bullying - long tolerated as just a part of growing up - finally has been recognized as a substantial and preventable health problem. Bullying is associated with anxiety, depression, poor school performance, and future delinquent behavior among its targets, and reports regularly surface of youth who have committed suicide at least in part because of intolerable bullying. Bullying also can have harmful effects on children who bully, on bystanders, on school climates, and on society at large. Bullying can occur at all ages, from before elementary school to after high school. It can take the form of physical violence, verbal attacks, social isolation, spreading rumors, or cyberbullying. Increased concern about bullying has led 49 states and the District of Columbia to enact anti-bullying legislation since 1999. In addition, research on the causes, consequences, and prevention of bullying has expanded greatly in recent decades. However, major gaps still exist in the understanding of bullying and of interventions that can prevent or mitigate the effects of bullying. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying is the summary of a workshop convened by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council in April 2014 to identify the conceptual models and interventions that have proven effective in decreasing bullying, examine models that could increase protective factors and mitigate the negative effects of bullying, and explore the appropriate roles of different groups in preventing bullying. This report reviews research on bullying prevention and intervention efforts as well as efforts in related areas of research and practice, implemented in a range of contexts and settings, including schools, peers, families, communities, laws and public policies, and technology. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying considers how involvement or lack of involvement by these sectors influences opportunities for bullying, and appropriate roles for these sectors in preventing bullying. This report highlights current research on bullying prevention, considers what works and what does not work, and derives lessons learned.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have "asked for" this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied begins to internalize this idea. For many years, there has been a general acceptance and collective shrug when it comes to a child or adolescent with greater social capital or power pushing around a child perceived as subordinate. But bullying is not developmentally appropriate; it should not be considered a normal part of the typical social grouping that occurs throughout a child's life. Although bullying behavior endures through generations, the milieu is changing. Historically, bulling has occurred at school, the physical setting in which most of childhood is centered and the primary source for peer group formation. In recent years, however, the physical setting is not the only place bullying is occurring. Technology allows for an entirely new type of digital electronic aggression, cyberbullying, which takes place through chat rooms, instant messaging, social media, and other forms of digital electronic communication. Composition of peer groups, shifting demographics, changing societal norms, and modern technology are contextual factors that must be considered to understand and effectively react to bullying in the United States. Youth are embedded in multiple contexts and each of these contexts interacts with individual characteristics of youth in ways that either exacerbate or attenuate the association between these individual characteristics and bullying perpetration or victimization. Recognizing that bullying behavior is a major public health problem that demands the concerted and coordinated time and attention of parents, educators and school administrators, health care providers, policy makers, families, and others concerned with the care of children, this report evaluates the state of the science on biological and psychosocial consequences of peer victimization and the risk and protective factors that either increase or decrease peer victimization behavior and consequences.
While the research on bullying and peer victimization has increased considerably over the past 20 years, a number of studies are emerging that document mixed results of bullying and prevention programs. During the last decades, several special issues devoted to research on bullying and victimization have been published in national and international scholarly journals. Based on the increase of published articles on bullying and victimization in journals, textbooks, government reports, and documents in professional organizations, it is timely for a special volume on research on bullying and victimization to appear in the series on Contemporary Perspectives in Early Childhood Education. The purpose of this volume is to share a collection of research strands on bullying and victimization of young children. It describes the historical roots and suggests anti?bullying programs and strategies to decrease bullying and victimization. The bullying and victimization volume can be a valuable tool to researchers who are conducting studies in that area. It focuses on important historical and contemporary issues on bullying and victimization in early childhood education (ages 0 to 8) to provide the information necessary to make judgments about these issues. It also motivates and guides researchers to explore gaps on research on bullying and victimization.
Author: Management Association, Information Resources
Publisher: IGI Global
Though decades ago school shootings were rare events, today they are becoming normalized. Active shooter drills have become more commonplace as pressure is placed on schools and law enforcement to prevent the next attack. Yet others argue the traumatizing effects of such exercises on the students. Additionally, violence between students continues to remain problematic as bullying pervades children’s lives both at school and at home, leading to negative mental health impacts and, in extreme cases, suicide. Establishing safer school policies, promoting violence prevention programs, building healthier classroom environments, and providing better staff training are all vital for protecting students physically and mentally. The Research Anthology on School Shootings, Peer Victimization, and Solutions for Building Safer Educational Institutions examines the current sources of violence within educational systems, and it offers solutions on how to provide a safer space for both students and educators alike. Broken into four sections, the book examines the causes and impacts that peer victimization has on students and how this can lead to further violence and investigates strategies for detecting the warning signs. The book provides solutions that range from policies and programs that can be established to strategies for teaching nonviolence and promoting coexistence in the classroom. Highlighting a range of topics such as violence prevention, school climate, and bullying, this publication is an ideal reference source for school administrators, law enforcement, teachers, government and state officials, school boards, academicians, researchers, and upper-level students who are intent on stopping the persisting and unfortunate problem that is school violence.
- Provide up-to-date knowledge about the nature of school violence, its etiology, epidemiology, and impact - Analyzes school violence through a multicultural and international perspective - The lead editor, Florence Denmark, is an internationally-recognized scholar and former APA president and a recipient of the 2004 Gold Medal Awards for Life Achievement from the American Psychological Foundation (APF)
Facilitating Change and Wellbeing in School Communities
Author: Helen Butler
Publisher: Aust Council for Ed Research
In today's school communities, the 'critical friend' - or change facilitator - has an increasingly vital role to play across the spectrum of teaching and learning, health promotion, and continuing professional development. But what is a critical friend and what does it take to be effective in such a role? Drawing on the findings of three intensive, school-based research initiatives, this book clearly defines the role of the critical friend and demonstrates a range of frameworks and applications for practice. Positive change in students' social and emotional wellbeing, and connectedness to school, is promoted through teachers' professional learning and focus on supportive school environments. The critical friend is pivotal in identifying the needs, facilitating the process of change, and ensuring a seamless integration with the core business, values, and objectives of the school. The activities, tips, and tools that are outlined in this groundbreaking book have been developed through years of research at the Center for Adolescent Health, Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. The book offers ready templates for adaptation to specific contexts across diverse demographics. It explains and explores the many dimensions of the critical friend, and it shares strategies that are designed to actively engage school communities in the process of change.
Attacks can backfire on attackers—sometimes spectacularly. Examples include the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police in 1991, the surveillance of Ralph Nader in 1965, and the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Attackers often inhibit adverse reactions by covering up the attack, devaluing the target, and using other methods. Through numerous detailed case studies, Justice Ignited reveals the most promising tactics that can make unfair attacks backfire.
Author: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Publisher: Organization for Economic
There are a number of challenges which schools face in trying to ensure the safety of their pupils, including the risks of accidents, bullying, vandalism and violence; and in some countries the range of incidents is increasing. This publication contains papers presented at an international conference on school safety and security, held in February 2002 and jointly organised by the OECD and the U.S, Department of Education. The papers are organised under five key themes: risk assessment; crisis planning and management; infrastructure issues relating to building design and security measures; collaborative approaches; education, training and support.
Report with Background Papers and Focus Group Summary
Author: Peter Reuter
Publisher: RAND Corporation
Category: Drug abuse
This report synthesizes the findings of a review of the structure and performance of the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA) and assesses options for reforming it. The Act provides for a $600-million-per-year program of grants to states, which pass the money on to school districts for programs aimed at reducing school violence and drug abuse. However, the formula by which money is disbursed does not focus on the schools most in need of help, and it spreads the money too thinly. Moreover, the guidelines for expenditure permit schools to use the funds for programs that are unproven, and the legislation gives the federal government limited ability to foster effective programs. The SDFSCA program has not been credibly evaluated, but it is widely thought to have accomplished little. Yet the problems it addresses are so serious and widespread that the federal government cannot reasonably afford to abandon its commitment. Few proposals for reform have been offered, and only the one put forth by the Clinton administration is currently fully developed. That proposal moves in the right direction, but it addresses only some of the ways in which the program could be improved. This report suggests criteria for judging reform options and presents ways in which the proposal under discussion could be strengthened.
In November 2008, John Hattie's ground-breaking book Visible Learning synthesised the results of more thanfifteen years research involving millions of students and represented the biggest ever collection of evidence-based research into what actually works in schools to improve learning. Visible Learning for Teachers takes the next step and brings those ground breaking concepts to a completely new audience. Written for students, pre-service and in-service teachers, it explains how to apply the principles of Visible Learning to any classroom anywhere in the world. The author offers concise and user-friendly summaries of the most successful interventions and offers practical step-by-step guidance to the successful implementation of visible learning and visible teaching in the classroom. This book: links the biggest ever research project on teaching strategies to practical classroom implementation champions both teacher and student perspectives and contains step by step guidance including lesson preparation, interpreting learning and feedback during the lesson and post lesson follow up offers checklists, exercises, case studies and best practice scenarios to assist in raising achievement includes whole school checklists and advice for school leaders on facilitating visible learning in their institution now includes additional meta-analyses bringing the total cited within the research to over 900 comprehensively covers numerous areas of learning activity including pupil motivation, curriculum, meta-cognitive strategies, behaviour, teaching strategies, and classroom management. Visible Learning for Teachers is a must read for any student or teacher who wants an evidence based answer to the question; 'how do we maximise achievement in our schools?'
Some vols. include supplemental journals of "such proceedings of the sessions, as, during the time they were depending, were ordered to be kept secret, and respecting which the injunction of secrecy was afterwards taken off by the order of the House".
Combining theory with hands-on activities, this is a practical anti-bullying resource which emphasizes the need for a whole-school approach to the problem of bullying. The authors offer teachers, students and parents effective strategies for creating a long-term and positive influence on the school environment as a whole.