Modern scholarship has exposed the intrinsic importance of medieval science and confirmed its role in preserving and transmitting Greek and Arabic achievements. This Source Book offers a rare opportunity to explore more than ten centuries of European scientific thought. In it are approximately 190 selections by about 85 authors, most of them from the Latin West. Nearly half of the selections appear here for the first time in any vernacular translation. The readings, a number of them complete treatises, have been chosen to represent "science" in a medieval rather than a modern sense. Thus, insofar as they are relevant to medieval science, selections have been drawn from works on alchemy, astrology, logic, and theology. Most of the book, however, reflects medieval understanding of, and achievements in, the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences. Critical commentary and annotation accompany the selections. An appendix contains brief biographiesof all authors. This book will be an indispensible resource for students and scholars in the history of science.
The Latin "Version II", till now attributed to Adelard of Bath, is edited here for the first time. It was the most influential Euclid text in the Latin West in the 12th and 13th centuries. As the large number of manuscripts and the numerous quotations in other scientific and philosophical texts show, it was far better known than the three Euclid translations made from the Arabic in the 12th century (Adelard of Bath, version I; Hermann of Carinthia; Gerard of Cremona). Version II became the basis of later reworkings, in which the enunciations were taken over, but new proofs supplied; the most important text of this kind is the redaction made by Campanus in the late 1250s, which became the standard Latin "Euclid" in the later Middle Ages. The introduction deals with the questions of when and by whom version II was written. Since Marshall Clagett's fundamental article (1953) it has been generally accepted that version II is one of three Euclid texts attributable to Adelard of Bath. But a comparison of the text of version II with those of versions I and III yields little or no reason to assume that Adelard was the author of version II. Version II must have been written later than version I and before version III; its author was acquainted with Euclid texts of the Boethius tradition and with two of those transmitted from Arabic, version I (almost certainly by Adelard) and the version by Hermann of Carinthia.
The First Six Books, and the Portions of the Eleventh and Twelfth Books Read at Cambridge : Chiefly from the Text of Dr. Simson, with Explanatory Notes and Questions : Together with a Selection of Geometrical Exercises from the Senate-house and College Examination Papers : Designed for the Use of the Higher Forms in Public Schools and Students in the Universities
This volume in the highly respected Cambridge History of Science series is devoted to the history of science in the Middle Ages from the North Atlantic to the Indus Valley. Medieval science was once universally dismissed as non-existent - and sometimes it still is. This volume reveals the diversity of goals, contexts and accomplishments in the study of nature during the Middle Ages. Organized by topic and culture, its essays by distinguished scholars offer the most comprehensive and up-to-date history of medieval science currently available. Intended to provide a balanced and inclusive treatment of the medieval world, contributors consider scientific learning and advancement in the cultures associated with the Arabic, Greek, Latin and Hebrew languages. Scientists, historians and other curious readers will all gain a new appreciation for the study of nature during an era that is often misunderstood.
Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine details the whole scope of scientific knowledge in the medieval period in more than 300 A to Z entries. This resource discusses the research, application of knowledge, cultural and technology exchanges, experimentation, and achievements in the many disciplines related to science and technology. Coverage includes inventions, discoveries, concepts, places and fields of study, regions, and significant contributors to various fields of science. There are also entries on South-Central and East Asian science. This reference work provides an examination of medieval scientific tradition as well as an appreciation for the relationship between medieval science and the traditions it supplanted and those that replaced it. For a full list of entries, contributors, and more, visit the Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages website.
Here, at last, is the massively updated and augmented second edition of this landmark encyclopedia. It contains approximately 1000 entries dealing in depth with the history of the scientific, technological and medical accomplishments of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. The entries consist of fully updated articles together with hundreds of entirely new topics. This unique reference work includes intercultural articles on broad topics such as mathematics and astronomy as well as thoughtful philosophical articles on concepts and ideas related to the study of non-Western Science, such as rationality, objectivity, and method. You’ll also find material on religion and science, East and West, and magic and science.