This book presents reviews of the literature and reports of new findings from research into biological correlates of criminal behavior. The chapters are revised versions of talks given by participants in an Advanced Study Institute sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and held inCastelvecchio Pascoli in September, 1986. It is our second edited volume on biology and crime. The first book, The Causes of Cdme; New Biological Apwoaches, was published in 1987. In the preface to that book we described the regrettable hi. tory of the paeudobiological research into social problem. conducted by the Social Darwinists at the turn of the century. We requested that that unfortunate legacy not inhibit responsible and scientifically sound investigations of biological and psychological variables in criminology today. Evidence is mounting that showl that research limited to social and environmental vadables cannot explain the behavior of the minority of criminal offenders whose criminal careen begin in adolescence and develop into recidivistic and violent . . saults on society. Certainly these offenders are few, but epidemiological studies have found them to be responsible for an amount of crimes disproportionate to their small numbers. As few . . 5 % of males commit over 50% of criminal offenses. Intervention directed at these relatively few individuals could, if succes. ful, dramatically reduce our growing violent crime rate. The chapters in our earlier book showed that some biological variables do relate to this type of chronic offending.
This book takes an uncompromising look at how we define psychopathology and makes the argument that criminal behavior can and perhaps should be considered a disorder. Presenting sociological, genetic, neurochemical, brain-imaging, and psychophysiological evidence, it discusses the basis for criminal behavior and suggests, contrary to popular belief, that such behavior may be more biologically determined than previously thought. Presents a new conceptual approach to understanding crime as a disorder Is the most extensive review of biological predispositions to criminal behavior to date Analyzes the familial and extra-familial causes of crime Reviews the predispositions to crime including evolution and genetics, and the neuropsychological, psychophysiological, brain-imaging, neurochemical, and cognitive factors Presents the practical implications of viewing crime as a psychopathology in the contexts of free will, punishment, treatment, and future biosocial research
This book reviews putative neurological and neuropsychological factors in aggressive behavior. Discussions focus on explanatory models, brain sites, and cognitive functions that appear to be associated with aggressive behavior. Attention is given to measurement and design problems that are frequently encountered in the study of aggression. Further, it is emphasized that any relationship between neuropsychological factors and aggressive behavior will be complex. Neuropsychological factors must be considered in the context of mediating and moderating (precipitating and buffering) variables from other ecological levels (e. g. , family support). Even if perpetrator neuro psychological factors are found to be reliably associated with aggression, it will still be necessary to demonstrate the extent to which different neuro psychological factors are marker or are causal variables in aggressive behavior. Finally, since there has been a major societal and professional interest in the study of aggression within the family, several chapters focus on the possible neurological, neuropsychological, and physiological aspects of family violence. Chapter 1, entitled "Biological Theories of Violence," written by Adrian Raine and Angela Scerbo, provides a theoretical context for understanding the role of biological factors in aggression. This chapter begins with a discussion of conceptual issues and methodological problems that impede theory development and research in aggression. Following this discussion, the authors present theories that may lead to a better understanding of the ix x Preface neurological and cognitive components of aggression. The presentation of each theory is followed by a discussion of theory-related research.
Unchecked aggression and violence take a significant toll on society. With recent advances in pharmacology and genetic manipulation techniques, new interest has developed in the biological mechanisms of aggression. The primary goal of this title is to summarise and synthesis recent advances in the subject.
Over the past two centuries, many aspects of criminal behavior have been investigated. Finding this information and making sense of it all is difficult when many studies would appear to offer contradictory findings. The Handbook of Crime Correlates collects in one source the summary analysis of crime research worldwide. It provides over 400 tables that divide crime research into nine broad categories: Pervasiveness and intra-offending relationships Demographic factors Ecological and macroeconomic factors Family and peer factors Institutional factors Behavioral and personality factors Cognitive factors Biological factors Crime victimization and fear of crime Within these broad categories, tables identify regions of the world and how separate variables are or are not positively or negatively associated with criminal behavior. Criminal behavior is broken down into separate offending categories of violent crime, property crime, drug offenses, sex offenses, delinquency, general and adult offenses, and recidivism. Accompanying each table is a description of what each table indicates in terms of the positive or negative association of specific variables with specific types of crime by region. This book should serve as a valuable resource for criminal justice personnel and academics in the social and life sciences interested in criminal behavior.
Genetic, Neurobiological, and Biosocial Perspectives
Author: David M. Stoff
Publisher: Psychology Press
Conceived at a time when biological research on aggression and violence was drawn into controversy because of sociopolitical questions about its study, this volume provides an up-to-date account of recent biological studies performed -- mostly on humans. A group of scientists recognized the importance of freedom of inquiry and deemed it vital to address the most promising biological research in the field. The focus on biological mechanisms is not meant to imply that biological variables are paramount as a determinant of violence. Rather, biological variables operate in conjunction with other variables contributing to aggression or violence, and a complete understanding of this phenomenon requires consideration of all influences bearing on it. This book will familiarize readers with the rapidly growing and increasingly significant body of knowledge on the biological bases of human antisocial, aggressive, and violent behaviors. The editors concentrated on biological influences that support the basic physiological and biochemical processes of the brain and did not cover those biological influences that impact on the health of the individual such as head injury, pregnancy and birth complications, diet, and exposure to lead and other toxins. They focused on biological influences to illuminate their role in the complex behavioral phenomenon of violence. Three different approaches to the biological study of human antisocial, aggressive, and violent behaviors are represented -- genetic, neurobiological, and biosocial. Representing each of these three approaches, individual chapters from investigators in psychobiology, biological psychiatry, and basic-clinical neurosciences address the most recent experimental findings, methods, theory, and common misconceptions in the biological study of aggression and violence. The areas of primary focus are behavior and molecular genetics, neurochemistry and hormones, neuroimaging, psychophysiology and developmental psychobiology. Generally speaking, investigators following these different approaches have experience in different scientific backgrounds, select different methods, generate different analyses, employ different conceptual definitions for some of the same terms, and assume a different philosophical stance in attempting to explain violence. Nevertheless, all are united in their efforts to understand the biological underpinnings of violence. This book then assumes a comprehensive approach wherein different levels of analysis and different approaches inform each other. It is clear from the studies reported that aggression and violence are multidetermined phenomena and understanding them requires an interdisciplinary approach spanning economic, sociopolitical, psychological, sociological, and criminological as well as biomedical considerations. Nature (biology) and nurture (experience, context) are fundamentally inseparable in explaining aggression and violence; biology may affect experience or context, but experience or context also influences biology. Both need to be studied in a search for explanations of this phenomena.
Introduction to Criminology, Why Do They Do It?, Second Edition, by Pamela J. Schram Stephen G. Tibbetts, offers a contemporary and integrated discussion of the key theories that help us understand crime in the 21st century. With a focus on why offenders commit crimes, this bestseller skillfully engages students with real-world cases and examples to help students explore the fundamentals of criminology. To better align with how instructors actually teach this course, coverage of violent and property crimes has been integrated into the theory chapters, so students can clearly understand the application of theory to criminal behavior. Unlike other introductory criminology textbooks, the Second Edition discusses issues of diversity in each chapter and covers many contemporary topics that are not well represented in other texts, such as feminist criminology, cybercrime, hate crimes, white-collar crime, homeland security, and identity theft. Transnational comparisons regarding crime rates and the methods other countries use to deal with crime make this edition the most universal to date and a perfect companion for those wanting to learn about criminology in context.