Biodiversity In Agricultural Production Systems

Author: Gero Benckiser

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 429

View: 484

While modern science has always recognized the central role that biodiversity plays in the ecological processes that maintain the Earth's equilibrium, our increasing knowledge of nature has deepened our appreciation of this principle. Consequently, those involved with implementing and maintaining sustainable agriculture systems have begun to take a far more sophisticated approach to understanding and making use of the components and mechanics of biodiversity. Providing a comprehensive and highly practical exploration of the subject, Biodiversity in Agricultural Production Systems examines abiotic ecosystem diversity and biological complexity at every relevant level. Leading researchers detail subspecies diversity, covering ecotypes, lifecycles, genes, physiology, and behavior. They also discuss species richness and supraspecies diversity, which includes foodweb interactions and non-trophic relationships, as well as above- and belowground relationships. Exploring various facets of agricultural crops and cultivation practices, this inter-disciplinary volume- Gives an overview of the pore space dynamic in agroecosystems where most soil microorganisms reside, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and Tardigrada Examines the highly diverse and prominent role played by earthworms Looks at the metabolic processes occurring in soils that result in the release of greenhouse gases Outlines principles and strategies of order between interacting molecules, cells, species and communities Looks at mechanisms of competition, exploring growth regulation, transformation, and feeding strategies, as well as toxin production, mutation, and biofilm formation Discusses matter recycling and the diversity of microbial metabolism in soils Shows how long-term observation plots are used to assess soil quality Biodiversity in Agricultural Production Systems provides important information for those involved with researching and implementing sustainable agricultural systems, as well as those addressing specific challenges related to soil degradation, water management, and climatic impacts. It also provides recent research and fresh perspectives to enhance the approaches of those working in horticulture, biology, and the environmental sciences.

Biodiversity and Agriculture

Implications for Conservation and Development

Author: Jitendra Srivastava

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 26

View: 351

Agriculture's vital role in biodiversity conservation and management. Definition of biodiversity. Biodiversity's links to agriculture. Biodiversity and agriculture: on a collision course?. Rationale for the World Bank's involvement in biodiversity management. Biodiversity in the Bank's agricultural and environmental portfolios. Towards a strategy for biodiversity conservation in harmony with agricultural development.

Biodiversity In Agricultural Production Systems

Author: Gero Benckiser

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 421

While modern science has always recognized the central role that biodiversity plays in the ecological processes that maintain the Earth's equilibrium, our increasing knowledge of nature has deepened our appreciation of this principle. Consequently, those involved with implementing and maintaining sustainable agriculture systems have begun to take a

Managing Biodiversity in Agricultural Ecosystems

Author: Devra Ivy Jarvis

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 492

View: 266

Describes how farmers manage, maintain, and benefit from biodiversity in agricultural production systems. Includes the most recent research and developments in the maintenance of local diversity at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels.

Agricultural Biodiversity and Biotechnology in Economic Development

Author: Joseph Cooper

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 499

View: 466

The topics addressed in this book are of vital importance to the survival of humankind. Agricultural biodiversity, encompassing genetic diversity as well as human knowledge, is the base upon which agricultural production has been built, and protecting this resource is critical to ensuring the capacity of current and future generations to adapt to unforeseen challenges. Agricultural biodiversity underpins the productivity of all agricultural systems and is particularly important for poor and food-insecure farmers, who maintain highly diverse production systems in response to the marginal and risky production conditions they operate under. Understanding the importance of agricultural biodiversity in the livelihoods of the food insecure and enhancing its performance through the use of a variety of tools, including biotechnology, is a critically important issue in the world today, where over 800 million people have insufficient food to meet minimum needs. A strong theme that runs throughout the book is the importance of good public policy interventions to promote the provision of public goods associated with agricultural biodiversity conservation and directing biotechnology development to meet the needs of the poor. The book's primary innovation is that it describes the relationship between biotechnology and plant genetic diversity and puts these in the context of agricultural development. Both the conservation of plant genetic diversity and agricultural biotechnology have received extensive examination, but the linkages between the two have not, despite the apparently obvious relationship between the two.

Biodiversity and Agricultural Intensification

Partners for Development and Conservation

Author: Jitendra Srivastava

Publisher: Washington, DC : The World Bank

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 128

View: 302

Agriculture as friende and foe of biodiversity; Harmonizing biodiversity conservation and agricultural development; Plicy considerations along the interface between biodiversity and agriculture; Effects of land-use systems on the use and conservation of biodiversity; Effects of agricultural development on biodiversity: lessons from iowa; Livestock production systms and the management of domestic animal biodiversity; Biodiversity and the world bank's agricultural portfolio; Toward a strategy for mainstreaming biodiversity in agricultural development.

GARDENS of BIODIVERSITY

Conservation of genetic resources and their use in traditional food production systems by small farmers of the Southern Caucasus

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 391

View: 935

This book does not claim to offer a definitive prescription for sustainable agriculture and is not an exhaustive study. It puts forth a collection of concrete examples showing how genetic resources are maintained and used by small farmers for food security in the Southern Caucasus. These examples show that the livelihoods and prospects of rural people can be improved and consolidated in a sustainable manner to face important environmental, social and economic challenges without sacrificing the prosperity of future generations. The book would like to stimulate further debate, research and policies in the hope that bridges can be built between the sustainable use of biodiversity and genetic resources, traditional practices and ways of life, and the new technologies, demands and challenges of today’s society.

Agrobiodiversity - a training manual for farmer groups in East Africa

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 196

View: 187

Farmers play a crucial role in the preservation and sustainable use of agrobiodiversity. In fact, the diversity of species that support our current agricultural production systems has been carefully managed and shaped by farming communities, over the course of the history of humankind. Farmers act as custodian of the Earth’s agrobiodiversity resources, and play a big part in preserving traditional plant and animal varieties, and the knowledge associated with these. FAO has long been working on promoting approaches to agriculture that enable both the sustainable use of biodiversity resources for food and agriculture, and their conservation, and on supporting farmers to make informed decisions on their farm management and production practices. This training manual fits in this broader commitment, to support a shift towards a paradigm of agricultural production that can sustain food and nutrition security while at the same time cause the least harm to natural ecosystems. The manual is intended as an introduction to agricultural biodiversity, and to its relevance to different aspects of agricultural production and management for smallholder farmers in Kenya. It includes eight different training modules, each covering a specific aspect related to agrobiodiversity. The modules are standalone and can be used independently one from the other, depending on the user’s or project’s aim. The materials were originally prepared within the FAO- Netherlands Partnership Programme (FNPP) and have been updated, revised and published under the second phase of the European Union-funded project “Capacity-building related to multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) in Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries”.

Renewing innovation systems in agriculture and food

How to go towards more sustainability?

Author: E. Coudel

Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 413

Present-day society asks more from agriculture than just the production of food. Agriculture is now required to be concerned with the quality of food, ecosystem services, inclusion of marginalized populations, revitalization of rural territories, energy production, etc. This opening up of the future of agriculture encourages rural actors to experiment with new farming systems, using imagination, creativity and determination to replace dominant models. At the same time, low-cost mass-production systems continue on their way, with promises of a future based on green technologies. In this discussion it is important to consider what kind of sustainable development societies really want. Which innovations will help in achieving these developments? What role can research and public policies play in supporting the emergence of these innovations? This book takes the debate beyond the purely technical options and considers social and institutional innovations as well. It demonstrates that innovation is the result of a confrontation between visions of actors who often have divergent interests. There is no single path towards sustainable development and we must find ways to encourage the emergence and co-existence of different types of agriculture and food systems. The success of transitions will not only depend on our capacity to rethink existing models, but especially on our willingness to embark on a creative learning process from which we will inevitably emerge transformed.

Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture

Contributing to food security and sustainability in a changing world

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 78

View: 733

This publication considers what is involved in ensuring that biodiversity contributes to improved food security. It summarizes the major challenges expected over the next 40 years and offers a perspective on the fundamental changes needed to ensure that biodiversity contributes to sustainable and productive systems.

Cultivating Biodiversity to Transform Agriculture

Author: Étienne Hainzelin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 261

View: 949

How can cultivated plant biodiversity contribute to the transformation and the "ecologization" of agriculture in Southern countries? Based on extensive field work in the Southern countries, a great deal of scientific progress is presented in all areas affecting agriculture (agronomy, plant breeding and crop protection, cultivation systems, etc.) in order to intensify the ecological processes in cultivated plots and at the scale of rural landscapes.

Pacific Conservation Biology

A Journal Devoted to Conservation and Land Management in the Pacific Region

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Biodiversity conservation

Page:

View: 246

MAINSTREAMING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND BIODIVERSITY INTO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PACIFIC ISLANDS

TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 161

View: 370

This guidance document is designed to assist Pacific Island countries and territories in finding synergies between two important realms of policies and international commitments: sustainable management of chemicals and biodiversity conservation and use. It details the linkages between ecosystem services and biodiversity in agriculture, specifically in relation to soil health, ecological management of pests, weeds and invasive alien species, agroforestry, organic farming systems and ecotourism. It analyses current policies and best practices across the subregion and highlights key policy entry points for mainstreaming approaches to agriculture that reduce the use of agrochemicals. Produced under the EU-funded project “Capacity Building Related to Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries – Phase 2”, the document will guide countries in revising their strategies or policies related to chemical and biodiversity management. In particular, it will assist countries in revising or implementing their National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) to help them meet a number of Aichi Biodiversity Targets relevant to the agriculture sector.

Sustainable Agriculture for Biodiversity – Biodiversity for Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 48

View: 140

This brochure presents FAO’s work on mainstreaming biodiversity as a cross-cutting theme in the agriculture, fisheries and forestry sectors. It provides examples of on-the-ground activities and highlights relevant international mechanisms. It shows how biodiversity and ecosystems benefit people in countless ways by providing food, clean water, shelter and raw materials for our basic needs. Agriculture is a major user of biodiversity but also has the potential to contribute to the protection of biodiversity. Occupying more than one-third of land in most countries of the world, if managed sustainably, agriculture can contribute to important ecosystem functions. These include maintenance of water quality, erosion control, biological pest control and pollination. Our ability to benefit from ecosystem services in the future will depend critically on how we understand, value and manage them today, both within and outside agricultural production systems. To achieve this objective, the different sectors need to work together.

Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems

Author: Miguel Altieri

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 252

View: 379

Explore the latest research on biological control! Completely updated for 2004, this new edition examines methods for making agricultural systems less susceptible to insect pests. Containing new findings and reports of strategies, Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition will show you how pests can be managed by enhancing beneficial biodiversity using agroecological diversification methods. Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition provides you with an essential overview of the role of biodiversity in agriculture and then gets specific, with new and updated information on: the agroecology of pest management plant diversity and pest outbreaks within agroecosystems diversification strategies for pest management how sustainable farming systems are designed You'll also explore: the role of plant diversity on the biology of beneficial insects insect regulation in diverse agroecosystems manipulation of plant diversity in agroecosystems ecological and socioeconomic implications The fact is, many modern agroecosystems are unstable as a consequence of constant human intervention in crop systems which ignore ecological principles. With case studies on a variety of crops and pests, Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition explores entomological aspects of agriculture and analyzes the ecological basis for the maintenance of biodiversity. It will familiarize you with the theory and practice of enhancing biological pest control in agricultural systems by managing vegetational diversity via multiple cropping, cover cropping, rotations, and other spatial and temporal designs. With studies on intercropping, cover cropping, weed management, and crop-field border vegetation manipulation, this book covers the effects of these diverse systems on pest population density and the mechanisms underlying pest reduction in polycultures. Make it a part of your reference/teaching collection today!

The contribution of biodiversity for food and agriculture to the resilience of production systems

Thematic Study for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 88

View: 760

This study reviews the available information on the contribution of biodiversity for food and agriculture to the resilience of crop, livestock, forest, fishery and aquaculture production systems to environmental change and uncertainty.

Farming with Nature

The Science and Practice of Ecoagriculture

Author: Sara J. Scherr

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 472

View: 233

A growing body of evidence shows that agricultural landscapes can be managed not only to produce crops but also to support biodiversity and promote ecosystem health. Innovative farmers and scientists, as well as indigenous land managers, are developing diverse types of “ecoagriculture” landscapes to generate cobenefits for production, biodiversity, and local people. Farming with Nature offers a synthesis of the state of knowledge of key topics in ecoagriculture. The book is a unique collaboration among renowned agricultural and ecological scientists, leading field conservationists, and farm and community leaders to synthesize knowledge and experience across sectors. The book examines: the knowledge base for ecoagriculture as well as barriers, gaps, and opportunities for developing improved ecoagriculture systems what we have learned about managing landscapes to achieve multiple objectives at a landscape scale existing incentives for farmers, other land managers, and investors to develop and invest in ecoagriculture systems pathways to develop, implement, manage, and scale up successful ecoagriculture Insights are drawn from around the world, in tropical, Mediterranean, and temperate environments, from farming systems that range from highly commercialized to semi-subsistence. Farming with Nature is an important new work that can serve as a foundation document for planners, farm organizations, researchers, project developers, and policy makers to develop strategies for promoting and sustaining ecoagriculture landscapes. Replete with valuable best practice guidelines, it is a critical resource for both practitioners and researchers in the field.

Routledge Handbook of Agricultural Biodiversity

Author: Danny Hunter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 692

View: 400

The world relies on very few crop and animal species for agriculture and to supply its food needs. In recent decades, there has been increased appreciation of the risk this implies for food security and quality, especially in times of environmental change. As a result, agricultural biodiversity has moved to the top of research and policy agendas. This Handbook presents a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of agricultural biodiversity in a series of specially commissioned chapters. It draws on multiple disciplines including plant and animal genetics, ecology, crop and animal science, food studies and nutrition, as well as social science subjects which explore the socio-economic, cultural, institutional, legal and policy aspects of agricultural biodiversity. It focuses not only on the core requirements to deliver a sustainable agriculture and food supply, but also highlights the additional ecosystem services provided by a diverse and resilient agricultural landscape and farming practices. The book provides an indispensable reference textbook for a wide range of courses in agriculture, ecology, biodiversity conservation and environmental studies.