Bayesian modeling has become an indispensable tool for ecological research because it is uniquely suited to deal with complexity in a statistically coherent way. This textbook provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the latest Bayesian methods—in language ecologists can understand. Unlike other books on the subject, this one emphasizes the principles behind the computations, giving ecologists a big-picture understanding of how to implement this powerful statistical approach. Bayesian Models is an essential primer for non-statisticians. It begins with a definition of probability and develops a step-by-step sequence of connected ideas, including basic distribution theory, network diagrams, hierarchical models, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and inference from single and multiple models. This unique book places less emphasis on computer coding, favoring instead a concise presentation of the mathematical statistics needed to understand how and why Bayesian analysis works. It also explains how to write out properly formulated hierarchical Bayesian models and use them in computing, research papers, and proposals. This primer enables ecologists to understand the statistical principles behind Bayesian modeling and apply them to research, teaching, policy, and management. Presents the mathematical and statistical foundations of Bayesian modeling in language accessible to non-statisticians Covers basic distribution theory, network diagrams, hierarchical models, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and more Deemphasizes computer coding in favor of basic principles Explains how to write out properly factored statistical expressions representing Bayesian models
Bringing Bayesian Models to Life empowers the reader to extend, enhance, and implement statistical models for ecological and environmental data analysis. We open the black box and show the reader how to connect modern statistical models to computer algorithms. These algorithms allow the user to fit models that answer their scientific questions without needing to rely on automated Bayesian software. We show how to handcraft statistical models that are useful in ecological and environmental science including: linear and generalized linear models, spatial and time series models, occupancy and capture-recapture models, animal movement models, spatio-temporal models, and integrated population-models. Features: R code implementing algorithms to fit Bayesian models using real and simulated data examples. A comprehensive review of statistical models commonly used in ecological and environmental science. Overview of Bayesian computational methods such as importance sampling, MCMC, and HMC. Derivations of the necessary components to construct statistical algorithms from scratch. Bringing Bayesian Models to Life contains a comprehensive treatment of models and associated algorithms for fitting the models to data. We provide detailed and annotated R code in each chapter and apply it to fit each model we present to either real or simulated data for instructional purposes. Our code shows how to create every result and figure in the book so that readers can use and modify it for their own analyses. We provide all code and data in an organized set of directories available at the authors' websites.
The use of Bayesian methods for the analysis of data has grown substantially in areas as diverse as applied statistics, psychology, economics and medical science. Bayesian Methods for Categorical Data sets out to demystify modern Bayesian methods, making them accessible to students and researchers alike. Emphasizing the use of statistical computing and applied data analysis, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to Bayesian methods of categorical outcomes. * Reviews recent Bayesian methodology for categorical outcomes (binary, count and multinomial data). * Considers missing data models techniques and non-standard models (ZIP and negative binomial). * Evaluates time series and spatio-temporal models for discrete data. * Features discussion of univariate and multivariate techniques. * Provides a set of downloadable worked examples with documented WinBUGS code, available from an ftp site. The author's previous 2 bestselling titles provided a comprehensive introduction to the theory and application of Bayesian models. Bayesian Models for Categorical Data continues to build upon this foundation by developing their application to categorical, or discrete data - one of the most common types of data available. The author's clear and logical approach makes the book accessible to a wide range of students and practitioners, including those dealing with categorical data in medicine, sociology, psychology and epidemiology.
Become an expert in Bayesian Machine Learning methods using R and apply them to solve real-world big data problems About This Book Understand the principles of Bayesian Inference with less mathematical equations Learn state-of-the art Machine Learning methods Familiarize yourself with the recent advances in Deep Learning and Big Data frameworks with this step-by-step guide Who This Book Is For This book is for statisticians, analysts, and data scientists who want to build a Bayes-based system with R and implement it in their day-to-day models and projects. It is mainly intended for Data Scientists and Software Engineers who are involved in the development of Advanced Analytics applications. To understand this book, it would be useful if you have basic knowledge of probability theory and analytics and some familiarity with the programming language R. What You Will Learn Set up the R environment Create a classification model to predict and explore discrete variables Get acquainted with Probability Theory to analyze random events Build Linear Regression models Use Bayesian networks to infer the probability distribution of decision variables in a problem Model a problem using Bayesian Linear Regression approach with the R package BLR Use Bayesian Logistic Regression model to classify numerical data Perform Bayesian Inference on massively large data sets using the MapReduce programs in R and Cloud computing In Detail Bayesian Inference provides a unified framework to deal with all sorts of uncertainties when learning patterns form data using machine learning models and use it for predicting future observations. However, learning and implementing Bayesian models is not easy for data science practitioners due to the level of mathematical treatment involved. Also, applying Bayesian methods to real-world problems requires high computational resources. With the recent advances in computation and several open sources packages available in R, Bayesian modeling has become more feasible to use for practical applications today. Therefore, it would be advantageous for all data scientists and engineers to understand Bayesian methods and apply them in their projects to achieve better results. Learning Bayesian Models with R starts by giving you a comprehensive coverage of the Bayesian Machine Learning models and the R packages that implement them. It begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of probability theory and R programming for those who are new to the subject. Then the book covers some of the important machine learning methods, both supervised and unsupervised learning, implemented using Bayesian Inference and R. Every chapter begins with a theoretical description of the method explained in a very simple manner. Then, relevant R packages are discussed and some illustrations using data sets from the UCI Machine Learning repository are given. Each chapter ends with some simple exercises for you to get hands-on experience of the concepts and R packages discussed in the chapter. The last chapters are devoted to the latest development in the field, specifically Deep Learning, which uses a class of Neural Network models that are currently at the frontier of Artificial Intelligence. The book concludes with the application of Bayesian methods on Big Data using the Hadoop and Spark frameworks. Style and approach The book first gives you a theoretical description of the Bayesian models in simple language, followed by details of its implementation in the R package. Each chapter has illustrations for the use of Bayesian model and the corresponding R package, using data sets from the UCI Machine Learning repository. Each chapter also contains sufficient exercises for you to get more hands-on practice.
Spatial and Spatio–Temporal Bayesian Models with R–INLA provides a much needed, practically oriented & innovative presentation of the combination of Bayesian methodology and spatial statistics. The authors combine an introduction to Bayesian theory and methodology with a focus on the spatial and spatio–temporal models used within the Bayesian framework and a series of practical examples which allow the reader to link the statistical theory presented to real data problems. The numerous examples from the fields of epidemiology, biostatistics and social science all are coded in the R package R–INLA, which has proven to be a valid alternative to the commonly used Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations
Bayesian Modeling in Bioinformatics discusses the development and application of Bayesian statistical methods for the analysis of high-throughput bioinformatics data arising from problems in molecular and structural biology and disease-related medical research, such as cancer. It presents a broad overview of statistical inference, clustering, and classification problems in two main high-throughput platforms: microarray gene expression and phylogenic analysis. The book explores Bayesian techniques and models for detecting differentially expressed genes, classifying differential gene expression, and identifying biomarkers. It develops novel Bayesian nonparametric approaches for bioinformatics problems, measurement error and survival models for cDNA microarrays, a Bayesian hidden Markov modeling approach for CGH array data, Bayesian approaches for phylogenic analysis, sparsity priors for protein-protein interaction predictions, and Bayesian networks for gene expression data. The text also describes applications of mode-oriented stochastic search algorithms, in vitro to in vivo factor profiling, proportional hazards regression using Bayesian kernel machines, and QTL mapping. Focusing on design, statistical inference, and data analysis from a Bayesian perspective, this volume explores statistical challenges in bioinformatics data analysis and modeling and offers solutions to these problems. It encourages readers to draw on the evolving technologies and promote statistical development in this area of bioinformatics.
A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modelingusing WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easilyaccessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programmingtechniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The authorprovides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers asmooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling withdetailed guidance on the practical implementation of keyprinciples. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inferenceand the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics,including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use ofboth WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussedtechniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers totest their understanding of the presented concepts and all datasets and code are available on the book's related Web site. Requiring only a working knowledge of probability theory andstatistics, Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS serves as anexcellent book for courses on Bayesian statistics at theupper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuablereference for researchers and practitioners in the fields ofstatistics, actuarial science, medicine, and the social scienceswho use WinBUGS in their everyday work.
Along with many practical applications, Bayesian Model Selection and Statistical Modeling presents an array of Bayesian inference and model selection procedures. It thoroughly explains the concepts, illustrates the derivations of various Bayesian model selection criteria through examples, and provides R code for implementation. The author shows how to implement a variety of Bayesian inference using R and sampling methods, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo. He covers the different types of simulation-based Bayesian model selection criteria, including the numerical calculation of Bayes factors, the Bayesian predictive information criterion, and the deviance information criterion. He also provides a theoretical basis for the analysis of these criteria. In addition, the author discusses how Bayesian model averaging can simultaneously treat both model and parameter uncertainties. Selecting and constructing the appropriate statistical model significantly affect the quality of results in decision making, forecasting, stochastic structure explorations, and other problems. Helping you choose the right Bayesian model, this book focuses on the framework for Bayesian model selection and includes practical examples of model selection criteria.
Making statistical modeling and inference more accessible to ecologists and related scientists, Introduction to Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling for Ecological Data gives readers a flexible and effective framework to learn about complex ecological processes from various sources of data. It also helps readers get started on building their own statistical models. The text begins with simple models that progressively become more complex and realistic through explanatory covariates and intermediate hidden states variables. When fitting the models to data, the authors gradually present the concepts and techniques of the Bayesian paradigm from a practical point of view using real case studies. They emphasize how hierarchical Bayesian modeling supports multidimensional models involving complex interactions between parameters and latent variables. Data sets, exercises, and R and WinBUGS codes are available on the authors’ website. This book shows how Bayesian statistical modeling provides an intuitive way to organize data, test ideas, investigate competing hypotheses, and assess degrees of confidence of predictions. It also illustrates how conditional reasoning can dismantle a complex reality into more understandable pieces. As conditional reasoning is intimately linked with Bayesian thinking, considering hierarchical models within the Bayesian setting offers a unified and coherent framework for modeling, estimation, and prediction.