Aviation Markets: Studies in Competition and Regulatory Reform is a collection of 17 papers selected from David Starkie's extensive writings over the last 25 years. Previously published material has been extensively edited and adapted, and combined with new material, published here for the first time. The book is divided into five sections, each featuring an original overview chapter, to better establish the background and also explain the papers' wider significance including, wherever appropriate, their relevance to current policy issues. These papers have been selected to illustrate a significant theme that has been relatively neglected thus far in both aviation and industrial economics: the role of the market and its interplay with the development of economic policy in the context of a dynamic but partly price regulated industry. The result provides a strong flavour of how market mechanisms, and particularly competition, can operate to successfully resolve policy issues. The book will be of interest to academics and those engaged in the formulation of aviation policy, such as public administrators and consultants, as well as those working in the aviation industry. It is also relevant to economic studies in a more general context, particularly to students and practitioners in industrial organisation economics, including those studying and researching the public utility industries.
A Survey of Experience in North America, Europe and Australia
Author: Peter Forsyth
Category: Business & Economics
Prior to liberalization, there was little scope for predatory behaviour in the aviation market. However, following deregulation, new entrants sought to compete with entrenched incumbents. Low-cost carriers (LCCs) gained significant market share, which in turn provoked many different kinds of defensive response. Having put pressure on established carriers, low-cost airlines are themselves feeling the pressure of competition from new operators. While it is normal and natural for airlines to react to competition - modifying their services, the ways in which they offer them and their prices - when does aggressive commercial behaviour go too far and become predation? This book considers what exactly is meant by 'predation' in the aviation environment, and explores the strategies LCCs adopt in order to gain market share, as well as the strategies of the established airlines in response to competition from new entrants to the market. It also addresses the key question of what competition policy should do to ensure intensive competition. Competition versus Predation in Aviation Markets brings together contributions from around the world, from airlines, government agencies, leading academics and consultants, providing a wealth of perspectives on a business practice crucial to airline survival.
Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: The contestability hypothesis has extensively been tested for the liberalised US airline markets. Entry barriers render US airline markets non-contestable. However, these studies do not allow an empirically based conclusion whether entry barriers are differently effective in preventing entry. Moreover, since previous studies exhibit no intra-firm perspective, they cannot ascertain whether a particular entry impediment prevents entry equally effective irrespective of potential entrant's characteristics. Comparable studies about the recently liberalised European airline markets are not available. This study fills these gaps by investigating European airline managers' perception of entry barriers. It turn out that some barriers are perceived to be significantly more effective than others. The perception of the effectiveness of a certain entry barrier, however, varies considerably among airline managers. Airlines' and respondents' characteristics contribute to explain this variance. Einleitung: Diese Arbeit untersucht mit Hilfe einer eigenen erhobenen empirischen Basis die Existenz von Markteintrittsbarrieren im europäischen Passagierluftverkehr nach dessen vollständiger Liberalisierung im Jahre 1997. Als Markteintrittsbarrieren werden alle Charakteristika eines an sich gewinnträchtigen Streckenmarktes betrachtet, die eine Fluggesellschaft davon abhalten, in diesen Markt einzutreten. Folgende Forschungsfragen werden beantwortet: - Welche Markteintrittsbarrieren nehmen europäische Fluggesellschaften wahr? - Sind alle Markteintrittsbarrieren aus Sicht der europäischen Airlines gleich wirksam? - Betrachten alle europäischen Fluggesellschaften eine bestimmte Markteintrittsbarriere als gleich wirksam und worauf sind mögliche Unterschiede zurückzuführen? Gang der Untersuchung: Kapitel 1 gibt eine kurze Einführung in die Problemstellung des Themas und definiert die verwendeten Begrifflichkeiten. Kapitel 2 stellt den bereits in den Literatur zugänglichen Wissensstand dar. Zunächst diskutiert es die Grundlagen der Theorie des bestreitbaren Marktes ( contestability theory ). Die praktische Bedeutung von Markteintrittsbarrieren für die Qualität des Wettbewerbs wird verdeutlicht. Anschließend werden die Forschungsmethode und Ergebnisse von 29 Studien zum Test der Contestability Hypothese im nordamerikanischen Luftverkehr vorgestellt. Fast alle dieser Studien weisen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen aufgrund von Markteintrittsbarrieren in [...]
Since the International Civil Aviation Convention was concluded in 1944,a great deal has changed in the world of international aviation. Deregulation was introduced in the United States in 1978, the historic Single European Aviation Market was created in 1993, and now the Single Aviation Market of Australia and New Zealand has also been created. Liberalisation and competition has brought unprecedented choice to air transport users. There are no signs that this trend will go into reverse. Many of these efforts have taken place in the context of regional aviation markets from Europe to South America to Africa and across to Asia. Together, they offer a different perspective to the search for a new juridical order in the regulation of international aviation. This book seeks to add to this search. It examines developments in Australasia and argues that Australia, New Zealand and the Single Aviation Market they have established have much to offer the continuing campaign to re-write the constitution and conventions of international aviation.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2005 in the subject Business economics - Miscellaneous, grade: 1,3, International University Bremen, 21 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: During the past 15 years, there has been a considerable increase in the share of air travel within Europe that is carried out by low-cost airlines. These new airlines apply the most drastic cost saving measures in order to drive air fares down to a minimum. This paper will first explore the deregulation process of the European aviation market which was the precondition for the emergence of low-fare carriers in the early 1990s. It will then take a closer look at Ryanair, the current low-cost leader in Europe and describe its history, the elements of this distinct business model, its successes, and also some limitations. The last part of the paper will concentrate on the impact that low-fare airlines like Ryanair have on the aviation market. It will explore the changes on the market that can be expected in the long-run and will pay attention to the question if and how traditional full service carriers can respond to the increased competition.
The last few decades have witnessed substantial liberalization trends in various industries and countries. Starting with the deregulation of the US airline industry in 1978, regulatory restructuring took place in further network industries such as telecommunications, electricity or railways in various countries around the world. Although most of the liberalization movements were initially triggered by the worrying performances of the respective regulatory frameworks, increases in competition and corresponding improvements in allocative and productive efficiency were typically associated with the respective liberalization efforts. From an academic perspective, the transition from regulated industries to liberalized industries has attracted a substantial amount of research reflected in many books and research articles which can be distilled to three main questions: (1) What are the forces that have given rise to regulatory reform? (2) What is the structure of the regulatory change which has occurred to date and is likely to occur in the immediate future? (3) What have been the effects on industry efficiency, prices and profits of the reforms which have occurred to date? Liberalization in Aviation brings together renowned academics and practitioners from around the world to address all three questions and draw policy conclusions. The book is divided into five sections, in turn dealing with aspects of competition in various liberalized markets, the emergence and growth of low-cost carriers, horizontal mergers and alliances, infrastructures, and concluding with economic assessments of liberalization steps so far and proposed steps in the future.
Aviation networks play a critical role in the success of today’s airlines and airports. This book provides insight on all aspects of modern network strategies and structures, ranging from market research to hub design, operations, organization, alliances, benchmarking, and antitrust issues. Considering both the airline and the airport perspectives, the book explains the economics of connectivity or productivity-driven hub structures through basic mathematics, which helps the reader to comprehend the structural strengths and weaknesses of aviation networks. More than 100 charts help clarify the topics at hand.