Development of a Methodology Through a Case Study in the Andes of Peru
Author: Walter Vergara
Publisher: World Bank Publications
"Climate change is beginning to have effects on climate, weather and resource availability in ways that need to be anticipated when planning for the future. In particular, changes in rainfall patterns and temperature may impact the intensity or schedule of water availability. Also the retreat of tropical glaciers, the drying of unique Andean wetland ecosystems, as well as increased weather variability and weather extremes will affect water regulation. These changes have the potential to impact the energy and other sectors, such as agriculture, and could have broader economic effects.Anticipating the impacts of climate change is a new frontier. There are few examples of predictions of the impact of climate change on resource availability and even fewer examples of the applications of such predictions to planning for sustainable economic development. However, having access to an effective methodology would allow planners and policy makers to better plan for adaptation measures to address the consequences of climate change on the power and water sectors.This report presents a summary of the efforts to develop methodological tools for the assessment of climate impacts on surface hydrology in the Peruvian Andes. It is targeted to decision makers in Peru and in other countries to give them guidance on how to choose available and suitable tools and make an assessment of climate impacts on water regulation."
We hear about pieces of ice the size of continents breaking off of Antarctica, rapidly melting glaciers in the Himalayas, and ice sheets in the Arctic crumbling to the sea, but does it really matter? Will melting glaciers change our lives? Absolutely. Glaciers are built and destroyed during ice ages and interglacial periods. These massive ice bodies hold three quarters of our freshwater, yet we don't have laws to protect them from climate change. When they melt, they increase sea levels, alter the Earth's reflectivity, wreak havoc for ocean and air currents, destabilize global ecosystems, warm our climate, and bring on floods that swamp millions of acres of coastal land. The critical ecological role they play to keep our global climate stable, and the environmental functions they provide, wither. And, as climate change warms glacier cores, collapsing glacier ice triggers tsunamis that send deadly massive ice blocks, rocks, earth, and billions of liters of water rushing down mountain valleys. It has happened before in the Himalayas, the Central Andes, the Rockies and Western Cascades, and the European Alps, and it will happen again. In his new book Meltdown, Jorge Daniel Taillant takes readers deeper into the cryosphere, connecting the dots between climate change, glacier melt, and the impacts that receding glacier ice brings to livability on Earth, to our environments, and to our communities. Taillant walks us through the little-known realm of the periglacial environment, a world of invisible subsurface rock glaciers that will outlive exposed glaciers as climate change destroys surface ice. He also looks at actions that can help stop climate change and save glaciers, exploring how society, politics, and our leaders have responded to address the global COVID-19 pandemic and yet largely continue to fail to address the even larger--looming and escalating--crisis of climate change. Our climate is deteriorating at a drastic rate, and it's happening right in front of us. Meltdown is about glaciers and their unfolding demise during one of the most critical moments of our planet's geological history. If we can reconsider glaciers in a whole new light and understand the critical role they play in our own sustainability, we may be able to save the cryosphere.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Group II.
Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Group II.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Some issues addressed in this Working Group III volume are mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, managing biological carbon reservoirs, geo-engineering, costing methods, and decision-making frameworks.
Mountain environments are often perceived to be austere, isolated, and inhospitable. In fact, these areas are of immense value to mankind, providing direct life support to close to 10 percent of the world's population and sustaining a wide variety of species - many of which are endemic to this environment. 'Environmental Change in Mountains and Uplands' provides detailed account of the fragile and marginal physical and socio-economic systems which make up the world's mountain regions. Discussing the direct and indirect impacts of human interference on environmental ecosystems, it then turns to the social and economic consequences of such environmental change - both upon the mountain environment itself and upon the populations who depend on mountain resources for their economic sustenance. This book includes a review of possible implications for adaption and mitigation strategies in a global context. Working within a broad temporal scale, it draws upon paleoenvironmental records to document past changes which have occured in the absence of major anthropogenic influences, as well as utilising modelling as a means to assessing future environmental change.
“The idea of a national park was an American invention of historic consequences marking the beginning of a worldwide movement,” the U.S. National Park Service asserts in its 2006 Management Policies. National Parks beyond the Nation brings together the work of fifteen scholars and writers to reveal the tremendous diversity of the global national park experience—an experience sometimes influencing, sometimes influenced by, and sometimes with no reference whatever to the United States. Writer and historian Wallace Stegner once called national parks “America’s best idea.” The contributors to this volume use that exceptionalist claim as a starting point for thinking about an international history of national parks. They explore the historical interactions and influences—intellectual, political, and material—within and between national park systems in Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Indonesia, Antarctica, Brazil, and other countries. What is the role of science in the history of these preserves? Of politics? What purposes do they serve: Conservation? Education? Reverence toward nature? Tourist pleasure? People have thought differently about national parks at different times and in different places; and neat physical boundaries have been disrupted by wandering animals, human movements, the spread of disease, and climate change. Viewing parks around the world, at various scales and across national frontiers, these essays offer a panoptic view of the common and contrasting cultural and environmental features of national parks worldwide. If national parks are, as Stegner said, “absolutely American,” they are no less part of the world at large. National Parks beyond the Nation tells us as much about the multifarious and changing ideas of nature and culture as about the framing of those ideas in geographic, temporal, and national terms.
The Impacts of Climate Risks on Water and Agriculture
Author: Winston Yu
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Business & Economics
This study assesses the impacts of climate risks and development alternatives on water and agriculture in the Indus basin of Pakistan. It analyzes inter-relationships among the climate, water, and agriculture sectors and provides a systems modeling framework for these purposes.
Featuring contributions from leading experts in the field, Climate Change and Managed Ecosystems examines the effects of global climate change on intensively constructed or reconstructed ecosystems, focusing on land use changes in relation to forestry, agriculture, and wetlands including peatlands. The book begins by discussing the fragility of ecosystems in the face of changing climates, particularly through human caused increases in atmospheric GHGs. The chapters delineate how and why the climate has changed and what can be expected to occur in the foreseeable future. They identify the potential adaptation responses to reduce the impacts of a changing climate. Using this information as a foundation, the chapter authors examine what is known about the impacts of climate on agricultural, forested, and wetland ecosystems. They illustrate the importance of these ecosystems in the global carbon cycle and discuss the potential interaction between terrestrial and atmospheric carbon pools under changing climactic conditions. The book delineates what needs to be done to ensure continued stability in these ecosystems. It includes a description of activities that have been undertaken in the past to identify gaps in understanding GHG emissions from agriculture, forests, and wetlands and their mitigation, as well as current research initiatives to address these gaps. The book presents an overview of how economic reasoning can be applied to climate change and illustrates how terrestrial carbon-uptake credits (offset credits) operate within the Kyoto Protocol framework. By identifying gaps in the current understanding of adaptation of mitigation strategies, the book underscores the need to make management of these ecosystems part of a global solution.
Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students, researchers and policy makers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, atmospheric chemistry and environmental policy.
The book “Climate Change and Himalaya- Natural hazards and mountain resources” presents the resources of Himalaya along with the potential natural hazards. It consists twenty two chapters from researchers working in different institutions with multi disciplinary approach. More than seven hundred glaciers were monitored and discussed in one of the chapter of this book. This book will be highly useful to researchers, policy makers, students and is an essential document to libraries of universities, colleges, research institutions and personnel collections.