The economics of the Arts is a new field with a small but rapidly-growing literature, which has emerged in recent years out of the eagerness of economists to apply their techniques to hitherto untried areas and the recognition by Arts administrators of the rapidly increasing economic pressures on the Arts. This book of readings is the first of its kind. Of the 16 articles, 8 are directly concerned with the Arts in America; the other 8 deal with the British scene. What can economics say about so non-economic a subject as the Arts? Obviously, finance for the Arts involves economic considerations. But in addition, economics provides, among other things, a logic of rational choice, and the economists' style of thinking, therefore, is adaptable to any problem of choice in respect of any set of goals, whether they be economic goals or not. Then, there is the question of whether economics can provide a case for public support for the Arts, that is, whether the State should subsidize the Arts. This is a familiar problem in the economics of welfare but its application to the Arts raises novel questions and even economists are not agreed on whether economics can provide such a rationale. Also, there is the question of criteria for public expenditure on the Arts, assuming that the case for some public expenditure has been made. Can economists tell us how much the State should spend on the Arts? Surely, they can help us with a host of other questions: should museums and galleries charge fees; should museums ever sell off parts of their collections; can the Arts economize on their expenditures; how can modern music be most effectively encouraged by public funds; are ticket prices an important element in the demand for the Arts; and does the low pay of artists discourage individuals from taking up artistic occupations?
Using the economic perspective, this exciting text offers an alternative view to sociological or art historic approaches to art. The issues discussed include: institutions from festivals to "superstar" museums, different means of supporting the arts, an investigation into art as an investment, and the various approaches applied when valuing our cultural properties. This text challenges widely held popular views and, once started, is difficult to put down.
The Reich Chambers of Music, Theater, and the Visual Arts
Author: Alan E. Steinweis
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
From 1933 to 1945, the Reich Chamber of Culture exercised a profound influence over hundreds of thousands of German artists and entertainers. Alan Steinweis focuses on the fields of music, theater, and the visual arts in this first major study of Nazi cultural administration, examining a complex pattern of interaction among leading Nazi figures, German cultural functionaries, ordinary artists, and consumers of culture. Steinweis gives special attention to Nazi efforts to purge the arts of Jews and other so-called undesirables. Steinweis describes the political, professional, and economic environment in which German artists were compelled to function and explains the structure of decision making, thus showing in whose interest cultural policies were formulated. He discusses such issues as insurance, minimum wage statutes, and certification guidelines, all of which were matters of high priority to the art professions before 1933 as well as after the Nazi seizure of power. By elucidating the economic and professional context of cultural life, Steinweis helps to explain the widespread acquiescence of German artists to artistic censorship and racial 'purification.' His work also sheds new light on the purge of Jews from German cultural life.
Much recent discussion surrounding valuation of the arts and culture, particularly in the policy arena, has been dominated by a concern to identify an economic and financial basis for valuation of art works, arts, activities and more general ways in which we express our culture. Whereas a great deal can be gained from a fuller understanding of the economic value of art, there is a real danger that financial considerations will tend to crowd out all other aspects of value. This book moves beyond the limitations implicit in a narrow economic approach, bringing different disciplinary viewpoints together, opening up a dialogue between scholars about the processes of valuation that they use and exploring differences and identifying common ground between the various viewpoints. The book's common theme – the tension between economic and cultural modes of evaluation – unites the chapters, making it a coherent and unified volume that provides a new and unique perspective on how we value art.
This book studies the relationship between the arts and the economy. By applying economic thinking to arts and culture, it analyses markets for art and cultural goods, highlights specific facets of art auctions and discusses determinants of the economic success of artists. The author also sheds new light on various cultural areas, such as the performing and visual arts, festivals, films, museums and cultural heritage. Lastly, the book discusses cultural policies, the role of the state in financing culture, and the relationship between the arts and happiness.
Over the last 30 or 40 years a substantial literature has grown up in which the tools of economic theory and analysis have been applied to problems in the arts and culture. Economists who have surveyed the field generally locate the origins of contemporary cultural economics as being in 1966, the year of publication of the first major work in modern times dedicated specifically to the economics of the arts. It was a book by Baumol and Bowen which showed that economic analysis could illuminate the supply of and demand for artistic services, the contribution of the arts sector to the economy, and the role of public policy. Following the appearance of the Baumol and Bowen work, interest in the economics of the arts grew steadily, embracing areas such as demand for the arts, the economic functions of artists, the role of the nonprofit sector, and other areas. Cultural economics also expanded to include the cultural or entertainment industries (the media, movies, the publishing industry, popular music), as well as heritage and museum management, property right questions (in particular copyright) and the role of new communication technologies such as the internet. The field is therefore located at the crossroads of several disciplines: economics and management, but also art history, art philosophy, sociology and law. The Handbook is placed firmly in economics, but it also builds bridges across these various disciplines and will thus be of interest to researchers in all these different fields, as well as to those who are engaged in cultural policy issues and the role of culture in the development of our societies. *Presents an overview of the history of art markets *Addresses the value of art and consumer behavior toward acquiring art *Examines the effect of art on economies of developed and developing countries around the world
David and Ake E. Andersson's book will appeal to scholars and researchers at all levels of academe involved in economics, public sector economics and those with a special interest in art and/or entertainment. Public and private sector managers, planners and administrators in various art and entertainment industries will also find much to engage them within this book.
This book examines fundamental questions about funding for the arts: why should governments provide funding for the arts? What do the arts contribute to daily life? Do artists and their publics have a social responsibility? Challenging questionable assumptions about the state, the arts and a democratic society, Lambert Zuidervaart presents a vigorous case for government funding, based on crucial contributions the arts make to civil society. He argues that the arts contribute to democratic communication and a social economy, fostering the critical and creative dialogue that a democratic society needs. Informed by the author's experience leading a non-profit arts organisation as well as his expertise in the arts, humanities and social sciences, this book proposes an entirely new conception of the public role of art with wide-ranging implications for education, politics and cultural policy.
Culture manifests itself in everything human, including the ordinary business of everyday life. Culture and art have their own value, but economic values are also constrained. Art sponsorships and subsidies suggest a value that exceeds market price. So what is the real value of culture? Unlike the usual focus on formal problems, which has 'de-cultured' and 'de-moralized' the practice of economics, this book brings together economists, philosophers, historians, political scientists and artists to try to sort out the value of culture. This is a book not only for economists and social scientists, but also for anybody actively involved in the world of the arts and culture.
"Political economy is defined in this volume as collective state or corporate support for art and architecture in the public sphere intended to be accessible to the widest possible public, raising questions about the relationship of the state to cultural production and consumption. This collection of essays explores the political economy of art from the perspective of the artist or from analysis of art's production and consumption, emphasizing the art side of the relationship between art and state. This volume explores art as public good, a central issue in political economy. Essays examine specific cultural spaces as points of struggle between economic and cultural processes. Essays focus on three areas of conflict: theories of political economy put into practices of state cultural production, sculptural and architectural monuments commissioned by state and corporate entities, and conflicts and critiques of state investments in culture by artists and the public."--amazon.com edit. desc.
This book examines the relationship between the fine arts and economics —the contribution of various art forms toward economic growth and development, and the impact of economic factors on the creation of art.Xavier Greffe identifies the economic factors that can affect the emergence, flourishing, and disappearance of artistic activities. He begins with an analysis of the artistic markets where the players cannot be measured by standard economic yardsticks. The cast of characters include users who are initially unaware of the kind of satisfaction they can gain from unknown works of art, producers who do not know whether their upfront costs in the commissioning of new art and design will be covered, and the artists who are more interested in letting the creative muse guide their endeavors than in creating specifically defined works on demand. The book then explores the various dynamics that influence the development of the artistic sector: a revolving compromise between heritage and creation; a continuous passage between an original work of art and the products of cultural industries; and a permanent shift between profit and nonprofit institutions.Greffe provides a way to evaluate art from an economic perspective —that explains both the creation and development of creative movement, without judging the existence of works of art only in terms of economic logic.
Cultural economics as a field of research involves two areas, culture and economy. These two areas have been traditionally regarded as each other's antithesis. However, the economic aspects of culture have increasingly become a matter of everyday reality for persons working in the cultural field. The economy of culture has always been in the focus of political interest. Political decisions concerning such priority areas as the development of regional institutions, support to the artists and cultural programmes for children and youth have important economic implications. This book deals with a range of topics in cultural economics. It contains original papers by economists workingin the field from 15 different countries and covers a host of both theoretical and practical issues, covering the performing arts, arts marketsand museums. It represents an up-to-date statement of the application of economic ideas to cultural questions.