The Ottoman Empire and its conflicts provide one of the longest continuous narratives in military history. Its rulers were never overthrown by a foreign power and no usurper succeeded in taking the throne. At its height under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Empire became the most powerful state in the world - a multi-national, multilingual empire that stretched from Vienna to the upper Arab peninsula. With Suleiman's death began the gradual decline to the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 in which the Ottoman Empire lost much of its European territory. This volume covers the main campaigns and the part played by such elite troops as the Janissaries and the Sipahis, as well as exploring the social and economic impact of the conquests.
This edited volume explores conscription in the Napoleonic era, tracing the roots of European conscription and exploring the many methods that states used to obtain the manpower they needed to prosecute their wars. The levée-en-masse of the French Revolution has often been cited as a ‘Revolution in Military Affairs’, but was it truly a ‘revolutionary’ break with past European practices of raising armies, or an intensification of the scope and scale of practices already inherent in the European military system? This international collection of scholars demonstrate that European conscription has far deeper roots than has been previously acknowledged, and that its intensification during the Napoleonic era was more an ‘evolutionary’ than ‘revolutionary’ change. This book will be of much interest to students of Military History, Strategic Studies, Strategic History and European History.
Oxford University Press is proud to present the most up-to-date and comprehensive encyclopedia in this field. In three illustrated volumes with more than 1,500 entries, the Encyclopedia deals with all aspects of this important area of study, ranging from the Middle East to Central Asia to Southeast Asia and Africa as well as Europe and North America. The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture covers all subject areas including: artists, ruler, writers, architecture, ceramics, sculpture, painting, calligraphy, coins, textiles, and much more. The Encyclopedia offers fully-updated articles and bibliographies that draw upon the expansive scholarship of The Dictionary of Art, as well as more than 500 plans, maps, diagrams, illustrations, and color plates. This exciting reference work is accessible to scholars, students, and general readers, making it a reliable and essential resource covering this topic of burgeoning importance in world history and the visual arts.
Science and the Art of War Through the Age of Enlightenment
Author: Brett D. Steele
Publisher: MIT Press
Essays analyze the connections between science and technology and military power in the late medieval, Renaissance, and Enlightenment periods. The integration of scientific knowledge and military power began long before the Manhattan Project. In the third century BC, Archimedes was renowned for his research in mechanics and mathematics as well as for his design and coordination of defensive siegecraft for Syracuse during the Second Punic War. This collection of essays examines the emergence during the early modern era of mathematicians, chemists, and natural philosophers who, along with military engineers, navigators, and artillery officers, followed in the footsteps of Archimedes and synthesized scientific theory and military practice. It is the first collaborative scholarly assessment of these early military-scientific relationships, which have been long neglected by scholars both in the history of science and technology and in military history. From a historical perspective, this volume investigates the deep connections between two central manifestations of Western power, examining the military context of the Scientific Revolution and the scientific context of the Military Revolution. Unlike the classic narratives of the Scientific Revolution that focus on the theories of, and conflicts between, Aristotelian and Platonic worldviews, this volume highlights the emergence of the Archimedean ideal--in which a symbiosis exists between the supply of mechanistic science and the demand for military capability. From a security-studies perspective, this work presents an in-depth study of the central components of military power as well as their dynamic interactions in the political, acquisitional, operational, and tactical domains. The essays in this volume reveal the intellectual and cultural struggles to enhance the capabilities of these components--an exercise in transforming military power that remains relevant for today's armed forces. The volume sets the stage by examining the innovation of gunpowder weaponry in both the Christian and the Islamic states of the late medieval and Renaissance eras. It then explores such topics as the cultural resistance to scientific techniques and the relationship between early modern science and naval power--particularly the intersecting developments in mathematics and oceanic navigation. Other essays address the efforts of early practitioners and theorists of chemistry to increase the power and consistency of gunpowder. The final essays analyze the application of advanced scientific knowledge and Enlightenment ideals to the military engineering and artillery organizations of the eighteenth century. The volume concludes by noting the global spread of the Archimedean ideal during the nineteenth century as an essential means for resisting Western imperialism.
When speaking of the units of foreign volunteers integrated into the German forces during World War II, the Waffen-SS automatically comes to mind. But, in absolute numbers, more foreigners served with the Wehrmacht in the army, navy and air force. Anti-Communism was the most significant reason why so many volunteers were induced to wear the German uniform. This title examines the Wehrmacht’s foreign volunteers, taking a close look at their uniforms, organisation and distinctive insignia. Among those covered are the Legion Wallanie, LVF, Ostlegionen, Balkan volunteers, Hiwis, Kalmucks, Cossacks, Baltic, Russian and Ukranian volunteers.
Herausforderungen zwischen Tradition und Moderne : Materialien der vierten Deutschen Turkologen-Konferenz, Hamburg, 15.-18. März 1999
Author: Hendrik Fenz
Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Dieser Sammelband, der einen Teil der Vortrage anlasslich der Hamburger Turkologentagung 1999 enthalt, vereint Themen aus Geschichte und Gegenwart, aus Sprache und Literatur. Neben Beitragen zur Entwicklung des Turkischen in den neuen Medien oder zur Sprachpolitik in der Turkei stehen Diskurse uber den Umgang mit literarischen Texten und deren literaturgeschichtliche Einordnung, Studien uber Goethe und Dietz oder die Verbindung von Musik und Literatur in der turkischen Kulturgeschichte. Uber die Turkei als geographisch-historischer Rahmen gehen einzelne Beitrage hinaus, die sich mit dem Osmanischen Reich, den kaukasischen wie zentralasiatischen Gebieten oder aber auch der turkischen Einwanderung in Deutschland - die viel fruher als gemeinhin angenommen, namlich 1871 begann - beschaftigen. Es entsteht ein umfassender Einblick in die Breite und Vielfalt des Faches Turkologie.
Israel assumes in advance that defeat in war means an end to the Jewish nation, and it wages war accordingly. This fact influences the Israeli approach to its army and to the strategy, tactics, training and conduct of war. Surrounded by hostile nations, Israel has fought six victorious wars between 1948 and 1973. For a force which began as an irregular, impoverished and improvised group, this is a formidable record. Backed by plenty of photographs and eight full page colour plates, this fine text examines the six wars fought between 1948–73, including the extraordinary Israeli victory of 1967.