Women in the Ancient Near East offers a lucid account of the daily life of women in Mesopotamia from the third millennium BCE until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. The book systematically presents the lives of women emerging from the available cuneiform material and discusses modern scholarly opinion. Stol’s book is the first full-scale treatment of the history of women in the Ancient Near East.
The source material of the book is translated from the only existent Sasanian law text and two Rivâyats from the first half of the ninth and the first half of the tenth century, at which time the Zoroastrians survived only in minority communities. The original text is presented in photocopy with a transcription. The analysis is concerned with four institutions in the sphere of family law: Guardianship, marriage of levirate, marriage of a woman in order to provide her father or brother with an heir and marriage between close relatives (incest taboo did not exist). The issue of the research is to show how the social conditions and internal family economy with its power balance is reflected in the rules of the Sasanian law, and that the differences apparent in the later texts are not accidental, but form a pattern caused by the changing social conditions, and that the law was changed in order to help preserve the Zoroastrian minority in adversity under Arab rule.
Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life
Author: K. Van Der Toorn
This study of family religion in the Babylonian, Ugaritic and Israelite civilizations opens up a little studied province of ancient Near Eastern religion. By focusing on the interaction between family religion and state religion, the author offers fascinating insights in to the development of the religion of Israel.
This book describes ten different government archives of cuneiform tablets from Assyria, using them to analyze the social and economic character of the Middle Assyrian state, as well as the roles and practices of writing. The tablets, many of which have not been edited or translated, were excavated at the capital, Assur, and in the provinces, and they give vivid details to illuminate issues such as offerings to the national shrine, the economy and political role of elite households, palace etiquette, and state-run agriculture. This book concentrates particularly on how the Assyrian use of written documentation affected the nature and ethos of government, and compares this to contemporary practices in other palatial administrations at Nuzi, Alalah, Ugarit, and in Greece.
The history of the Ancient Near East covers a huge chronological frame, from the first pictographic texts of the late 4th millennium to the conquest of Alexander the Great in 333 BC. During these millennia, different societies developed in a changing landscape where sheep (and their wool) always played an important economic role. The 22 papers presented here explore the place of wool in the ancient economy of the region, where large-scale textile production began during the second half of the 3rd millennium. By placing emphasis on the development of multi-disciplinary methodologies, experimentation and use of archaeological evidence combined with ancient textual sources, the wide-ranging contributions explore a number of key themes. These include: the first uses of wool in textile manufacture and organization of weaving; trade and exchange; the role of wool in institutionalized economies; and the reconstruction of the processes that led to this first form of industry in Antiquity. The numerous archaeological and written sources provide an enormous amount of data on wool, textile crafts, and clothing and these inter-disciplinary studies are beginning to present a comprehensive picture of the economic and cultural impact of woollen textiles and textile manufacturing on formative ancient societies.
A critical resource that traces the reign of Sargon in context Josette Elayi's book is the only existing biography of Sargon II, the famous Assyrian king, who was a megalomaniac and a warlord. Elayi addresses such important questions, including what was his precise role in the disappearance of the kingdom of Israel; how did Sargon II succeed in enlarging the borders of the Assyrian Empire by several successful campaigns; how did he organize his empire (administration, trade, agriculture, libraries), and what was the so-called sin of Sargon? Features: Interpretations of decisive events during the life and reign of the Assyrian king An evaluation of Sargon II s reign Maps, tables, and illustrations
Proceedings of the 57th Rencontre Assyriologique International at Rome, 4-8 July 2011
Author: Alfonso Archi
Publisher: Penn State Press
In July, 2011, the International Association for Assyriology met in Rome, Italy, for 5 days to deliver and listen to papers on the theme “Tradition and Innovation in the Ancient Near East”. This volume, the proceedings of the conference, contains more than 40 of the papers read at the 57th annual Rencontre, including 3 plenary lectures/papers, many papers directly connected with the theme, as well as a workshop on parents and children. The papers covered every period of Mesopotamian history, from the third millennium through the end of the first millennium B.C.E. The attendees were warmly hosted by faculty and students from the Università di Roma “La Sapienza”.
What do we know of the real Nebuchadnezzar? Was there an historical precedent for the mythical Gilgamesh? Who were the Hittites? When did Isaiah preach? How did Jezebel get her reputation? These and many more questions are answered in this fascinating survey of the people who inhabited the Near East between the twenty-fifth and the second centuries BC. From Palestine to Iran and from Alexander the Great to Zechariah, Who's Who in the Ancient Near East presents a unique and comprehensive reference guide for all those with an interest in the ancient history of the area. A comprehensive glossary, chronological charts, maps and bibliographical information complement the biographical entries.
This book argues that Aramaic scribes from antiquity drew upon a common legal tradition. It identifies the distinctive elements that form the core of this tradition and traces their antecedents within the cuneiform record.
The Islamic claim to supersede Judaism and Christianity is embodied in the theological assertion that the office of prophecy is hereditary but that the line of descent ends with Muhammad, who is the seal, or last, of the prophets. While Muhammad had no natural sons who reached the age of maturity, he is said to have adopted a man named Zayd, and mutual rights of inheritance were created between the two. Zayd b. Muhammad, also known as the Beloved of the Messenger of God, was the first adult male to become a Muslim and the only Muslim apart from Muhammad to be named in the Qur'an. But if prophecy is hereditary and Muhammad has a son, David Powers argues, then he might not be the Last Prophet. Conversely, if he is the Last Prophet, he cannot have a son. In Muhammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men, Powers contends that a series of radical moves were made in the first two centuries of Islamic history to ensure Muhammad's position as the Last Prophet. He focuses on narrative accounts of Muhammad's repudiation of Zayd, of his marriage to Zayd's former wife, and of Zayd's martyrdom in battle against the Byzantines. Powers argues that theological imperatives drove changes in the historical record and led to the abolition or reform of key legal institutions. In what is likely to be the most controversial aspect of his book, he offers compelling physical evidence that the text of the Qur'an itself was altered.
A presentation of the various indigenous coin issues that circulated in Eastern Arabia during the pre-Islamic era as attested in five private collections studied by the author. The basis for the classification is a corpus of 529 coins selected from those collections for publication here. Geographically, the coins came from two distinct regions which today comprise the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Emirate of Umm al-Qaiwain in the United Arab Emirates. Foreign issues were rare in these areas, although a handful of Sasanian, Roman, Seleucid, Greek, Phoenician, Nabataean, Elymaean, Parthian and Sabaean coins have been attested to in the collections that form the basis of this work.
This book contains the 'Akkadian Texts' -- i.e. texts written in the Akkadian Language or script ductus -- the Enlilemaba Texts and the Onion Archive -- all three distinct archives from Nippur in Babylonia from the time of Naram-Sin and Sharkalisharri (c. 2250-2175 BC). The texts in the Akkadian archive deal with Sharkalisharri's rebuilding of Ekur, the great Temple of Enlil at Nippur. The Enlilemaba texts are the business records of a family of private citizens, and are the earliest known examples of this type of documentation from Mesopotamia. The Onion archive records the local governor's cultivation and distribution of onions, and illustrates his relations with the Imperial Sargonic government.The book is the second volume in a planned series of three tomes, OSP I-III, publishing the Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia. It contains the archaeological records of the individual texts, a list of joins and a concordance of museum numbers; copies, transliterations and translations of the texts as
Archaeological exploration of the Arabic Peninsula is not a new phenomenon, but only in the last two decades or so, has it received the scholary attention it deserves. Surveys are now taking place in the entire region, and new excavations have begun in almost every country on the peninsula. This collection of articles on Arabian archaeology takes its place among many of the recent works on the subject, and the articles presented here contributes with both materials and ideas to the field of study. Contributions range from palaeography and prehistory to the Islamic conquest.
The complete wall decorations of 3 Theban tombs (No. 77, No. 175 and No. 249) are here published for the first time. The graves at Thebes in Egypt, belonged to a master builder of the Amon temple in the time of Thutmosis IV, a purveyor of sweets in Amenophis III's temple of the dead, and a man in the business of scented oils. To date, only individual scenes from these tombs have been published, but here the reader is presented with the decorations in their entirety, including black and white photographs and line drawings, together with transcriptions and translations of all of the related texts.
Two aspects of the Egyptian civilisation characterise the work of Erik Iversen: Its original art and literature, and its reception in Europe from classical antiquity to Renaissance, Baroque and Romanticism. He is known for his papyrus editions, philological and lexicographical studies, and the tracing of cultural traditions outside of Egypt.