This book is an introduction to non-classical propositional logics. It brings together for the first time in a textbook a range of topics in logic, many of them of relatively recent origin, including modal, conditional, intuitionist, many-valued, paraconsistent, relevant and fuzzy logics. The material is unified by the underlying theme of world-semantics. All of the topics are explained clearly and accessibly, using devices such as tableaux proofs, and their relation to current philosophical issues and debates is discussed. Students with a basic understanding of classical logic will find this an invaluable introduction to an area that has become of central importance in both logic and philosophy, but which, until now, could be studied only through the research literature. It will interest those studying logic, those who need to know about non-classical logics because of their philosophical importance, and, more widely, readers working in mathematics and computer science.
This revised and considerably expanded 2nd edition brings together a wide range of topics, including modal, tense, conditional, intuitionist, many-valued, paraconsistent, relevant, and fuzzy logics. Part 1, on propositional logic, is the old Introduction, but contains much new material. Part 2 is entirely new, and covers quantification and identity for all the logics in Part 1. The material is unified by the underlying theme of world semantics. All of the topics are explained clearly using devices such as tableau proofs, and their relation to current philosophical issues and debates are discussed. Students with a basic understanding of classical logic will find this book an invaluable introduction to an area that has become of central importance in both logic and philosophy. It will also interest people working in mathematics and computer science who wish to know about the area.
An Introduction to the Mathematics of Propositions
Author: Eric Schechter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Classical logic is traditionally introduced by itself, but that makes it seem arbitrary and unnatural. This text introduces classical alongside several nonclassical logics (relevant, constructive, quantative, paraconsistent).
Professor Merrie Bergmann presents an accessible introduction to the subject of many-valued and fuzzy logic designed for use on undergraduate and graduate courses in non-classical logic. Bergmann discusses the philosophical issues that give rise to fuzzy logic - problems arising from vague language - and returns to those issues as logical systems are presented. For historical and pedagogical reasons, three-valued logical systems are presented as useful intermediate systems for studying the principles and theory behind fuzzy logic. The major fuzzy logical systems - Lukasiewicz, Gödel, and product logics - are then presented as generalisations of three-valued systems that successfully address the problems of vagueness. A clear presentation of technical concepts, this book includes exercises throughout the text that pose straightforward problems, that ask students to continue proofs begun in the text, and that engage students in the comparison of logical systems.
Possible worlds models were introduced by Saul Kripke in the early 1960s. Basically, a possible world's model is nothing but a graph with labelled nodes and labelled edges. Such graphs provide semantics for various modal logics (alethic, temporal, epistemic and doxastic, dynamic, deontic, description logics) and also turned out useful for other nonclassical logics (intuitionistic, conditional, several paraconsistent and relevant logics). All these logics have been studied intensively in philosophical and mathematical logic and in computer science, and have been applied increasingly in domains such as program semantics, artificial intelligence, and more recently in the semantic web. Additionally, all these logics were also studied proof theoretically. The proof systems for modal logics come in various styles: Hilbert style, natural deduction, sequents, and resolution. However, it is fair to say that the most uniform and most successful such systems are tableaux systems. Given logic and a formula, they allow one to check whether there is a model in that logic. This basically amounts to trying to build a model for the formula by building a tree. This book follows a more general approach by trying to build a graph, the advantage being that a graph is closer to a Kripke model than a tree. It provides a step-by-step introduction to possible worlds semantics (and by that to modal and other nonclassical logics) via the tableaux method. It is accompanied by a piece of software called LoTREC (www.irit.fr/Lotrec). LoTREC allows to check whether a given formula is true at a given world of a given model and to check whether a given formula is satisfiable in a given logic. The latter can be done immediately if the tableau system for that logic has already been implemented in LoTREC. If this is not yet the case LoTREC offers the possibility to implement a tableau system in a relatively easy way via a simple, graph-based, interactive language.
The subject of Labelled Non-Classical Logics is the development and investigation of a framework for the modular and uniform presentation and implementation of non-classical logics, in particular modal and relevance logics. Logics are presented as labelled deduction systems, which are proved to be sound and complete with respect to the corresponding Kripke-style semantics. We investigate the proof theory of our systems, and show them to possess structural properties such as normalization and the subformula property, which we exploit not only to establish advantages and limitations of our approach with respect to related ones, but also to give, by means of a substructural analysis, a new proof-theoretic method for investigating decidability and complexity of (some of) the logics we consider. All of our deduction systems have been implemented in the generic theorem prover Isabelle, thus providing a simple and natural environment for interactive proof development. Labelled Non-Classical Logics is essential reading for researchers and practitioners interested in the theory and applications of non-classical logics.
This book grew out of lectures. It is intended as an introduction to classical two-valued predicate logic. The restriction to classical logic is not meant to imply that this logic is intrinsically better than other, non-classical logics; however, classical logic is a good introduction to logic because of its simplicity, and a good basis for applications because it is the foundation of classical mathematics, and thus of the exact sciences which are based on it. The book is meant primarily for mathematics students who are already acquainted with some of the fundamental concepts of mathematics, such as that of a group. It should help the reader to see for himself the advantages of a formalisation. The step from the everyday language to a formalised language, which usually creates difficulties, is dis cussed and practised thoroughly. The analysis of the way in which basic mathematical structures are approached in mathematics leads in a natural way to the semantic notion of consequence. One of the substantial achievements of modern logic has been to show that the notion of consequence can be replaced by a provably equivalent notion of derivability which is defined by means of a calculus. Today we know of many calculi which have this property.
A Handbook of the Mathematical Foundations of Fuzzy Set Theory
Author: Ulrich Höhle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Non-Classical Logics and their Applications to Fuzzy Subsets is the first major work devoted to a careful study of various relations between non-classical logics and fuzzy sets. This volume is indispensable for all those who are interested in a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations of fuzzy set theory, particularly in intuitionistic logic, Lukasiewicz logic, monoidal logic, fuzzy logic and topos-like categories. The tutorial nature of the longer chapters, the comprehensive bibliography and index make it suitable as a valuable and important reference for graduate students as well as research workers in the field of non-classical logics. The book is arranged in three parts: Part A presents the most recent developments in the theory of Heyting algebras, MV-algebras, quantales and GL-monoids. Part B gives a coherent and current account of topos-like categories for fuzzy set theory based on Heyting algebra valued sets, quantal sets of M-valued sets. Part C addresses general aspects of non-classical logics including epistemological problems as well as recursive properties of fuzzy logic.
ESSLLI 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 2010, ESSLLI 2011, Ljubljana, Slovenia, August 2011, Selected Lecture Notes
Author: Nick Bezhanishvili
The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers foundational, introductory and advanced courses, as well as workshops, covering a wide variety of topics within the three areas of interest: Language and Computation, Language and Logic, and Logic and Computation. During two weeks, around 50 courses and 10 workshops are offered to the attendants, each of 1.5 hours per day during a five days week, with up to seven parallel sessions. ESSLLI also includes a student session (papers and posters by students only, 1.5 hour per day during the two weeks) and four evening lectures by senior scientists in the covered areas. The 6 course notes were carefully reviewed and selected. The papers are organized in topical sections on computational complexity, multi-agant systems, natural language processing, strategies in games and formal semantics.