DIVThis in-depth introduction to classical topics in higher algebra provides rigorous, detailed proofs for its explorations of some of mathematics' most significant concepts, including matrices, invariants, and groups. 1926 edition. /div
In the past decade, category theory has widened its scope and now inter acts with many areas of mathematics. This book develops some of the interactions between universal algebra and category theory as well as some of the resulting applications. We begin with an exposition of equationally defineable classes from the point of view of "algebraic theories," but without the use of category theory. This serves to motivate the general treatment of algebraic theories in a category, which is the central concern of the book. (No category theory is presumed; rather, an independent treatment is provided by the second chap ter.) Applications abound throughout the text and exercises and in the final chapter in which we pursue problems originating in topological dynamics and in automata theory. This book is a natural outgrowth of the ideas of a small group of mathe maticians, many of whom were in residence at the Forschungsinstitut für Mathematik of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Zürich, Switzerland during the academic year 1966-67. It was in this stimulating atmosphere that the author wrote his doctoral dissertation. The "Zürich School," then, was Michael Barr, Jon Beck, John Gray, Bill Lawvere, Fred Linton, and Myles Tierney (who were there) and (at least) Harry Appelgate, Sammy Eilenberg, John Isbell, and Saunders Mac Lane (whose spiritual presence was tangible.) I am grateful to the National Science Foundation who provided support, under grants GJ 35759 and OCR 72-03733 A01, while I wrote this book.
Algebraic theories, introduced as a concept in the 1960s, have been a fundamental step towards a categorical view of general algebra. Moreover, they have proved very useful in various areas of mathematics and computer science. This carefully developed book gives a systematic introduction to algebra based on algebraic theories that is accessible to both graduate students and researchers. It will facilitate interactions of general algebra, category theory and computer science. A central concept is that of sifted colimits - that is, those commuting with finite products in sets. The authors prove the duality between algebraic categories and algebraic theories and discuss Morita equivalence between algebraic theories. They also pay special attention to one-sorted algebraic theories and the corresponding concrete algebraic categories over sets, and to S-sorted algebraic theories, which are important in program semantics. The final chapter is devoted to finitary localizations of algebraic categories, a recent research area.
Straightforward explanation of abstract principles common to science and math, including Euclid's algorithm; congruences; polynomials; complex numbers and algebraic fields; algebraic integers, ideals, and p-adic numbers; groups; Galois theory; algebraic geometry; more.
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
PREFACE. THE Author of this very practical treatise on Scotch Loch - Fishing desires clearly that it may be of use to all who had it. He does not pretend to have written anything new, but to have attempted to put what he has to say in as readable a form as possible. Everything in the way of the history and habits of fish has been studiously avoided, and technicalities have been used as sparingly as possible. The writing of this book has afforded him pleasure in his leisure moments, and that pleasure would be much increased if he knew that the perusal of it would create any bond of sympathy between himself and the angling community in general. This section is interleaved with blank shects for the readers notes. The Author need hardly say that any suggestions addressed to the case of the publishers, will meet with consideration in a future edition. We do not pretend to write or enlarge upon a new subject. Much has been said and written-and well said and written too on the art of fishing but loch-fishing has been rather looked upon as a second-rate performance, and to dispel this idea is one of the objects for which this present treatise has been written. Far be it from us to say anything against fishing, lawfully practised in any form but many pent up in our large towns will bear us out when me say that, on the whole, a days loch-fishing is the most convenient. One great matter is, that the loch-fisher is depend- ent on nothing but enough wind to curl the water, -and on a large loch it is very seldom that a dead calm prevails all day, -and can make his arrangements for a day, weeks beforehand whereas the stream- fisher is dependent for a good take on the state of the water and however pleasant and easy it may be for one living near the banks of a good trout stream or river, it is quite another matter to arrange for a days river-fishing, if one is looking forward to a holiday at a date some weeks ahead. Providence may favour the expectant angler with a good day, and the water in order but experience has taught most of us that the good days are in the minority, and that, as is the case with our rapid running streams, -such as many of our northern streams are, -the water is either too large or too small, unless, as previously remarked, you live near at hand, and can catch it at its best. A common belief in regard to loch-fishing is, that the tyro and the experienced angler have nearly the same chance in fishing, -the one from the stern and the other from the bow of the same boat. Of all the absurd beliefs as to loch-fishing, this is one of the most absurd. Try it. Give the tyro either end of the boat he likes give him a cast of ally flies he may fancy, or even a cast similar to those which a crack may be using and if he catches one for every three the other has, he may consider himself very lucky. Of course there are lochs where the fish are not abundant, and a beginner may come across as many as an older fisher but we speak of lochs where there are fish to be caught, and where each has a fair chance. Again, it is said that the boatman has as much to do with catching trout in a loch as the angler. Well, we dont deny that. In an untried loch it is necessary to have the guidance of a good boatman but the same argument holds good as to stream-fishing...
Investigates automata networks as algebraic structures and develops their theory in line with other algebraic theories, such as those of semigroups, groups, rings, and fields. The authors also investigate automata networks as products of automata, that is, as compositions of automata obtained by cascading without feedback or with feedback of various restricted types or, most generally, with the feedback dependencies controlled by an arbitrary directed graph. They survey and extend the fundamental results in regard to automata networks, including the main decomposition theorems of Letichevsky, of Krohn and Rhodes, and of others.